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North Indicator True north (14 degree declination) USGS Quadrangle Map: Yellow Jacket, Colorado, 7.5 minute, 1965
Grid Grid is aligned to true north
Mapping Techniques All mapping at Yellow Jacket was done with a GTS-303 total station surveying instrument and data collector. R. R. Lightfoot and K. A. Kuckelman set in the primary datums, the baseline (which is oriented north-south), and the initial excavation units; this original grid set-up work was carried out in April 1995. The north-south baseline was established from a USGS benchmark at the intersection of the main north-south fenceline on the site. That is, the fenceline itself is roughly (although not precisely) the north-south baseline. The benchmark was arbitrarily designated grid point 1000N 1000E, and 100 m elevation. Mapping Datum 1 (972.41N 997.33E) was set in on a nearby high point, which was near the north end of the Block 200 rubble mound. From Mapping Datum 1, datums 2 through 4 were shot in. Datum 2 (999.96N 1089.50E) was northeast of Datum 1, and was along the fence line that crossed the benchmark east-west. This datum was used to locate the line of this fence for the site map, but was not used for any other purpose. Datum 3 (1111N 1002E) was a mapping point north of Datum 1, and was along the north-south fenceline. Datum 4 (1244N 1002E) was even farther north of Datum 1, and was on the rubble mound in Block 900. Multiple datums were then shot in from Datum 4--Datum 5 (1269N. 1058E), on the rubble mound in Block 1000; Datum 6 (1279.01N 1093.30E) in Block 1100; and Datum 7 (1205. 96N 1153.11E) in the great tower complex. Rebar was used to mark datums 1, 3, 4, and 7. Excavation units, architectural features, and pothunting depressions were also shot in from these main datums and additional temporary datums. For example, temporary datums were set up along the canyon rim to facilitate the mapping of architectural features and the setting in of excavation units on the talus slope below the canyon rim. See the AutoCAD files, field mapping notes, and sketch maps for additional details.
Clearing of Vegetation Grasses and other small plants were removed in excavated areas. Shrubs were trimmed during placement and removal of the equipment trailer, during construction of the 1000-ft-long section of fence around the northeast portion of the site, and during development of access trails around the site. No trees were removed or damaged during Crow Canyon's research at the site.
Reclamation Excavation pits and excavated structures were backfilled according to Archaeological Conservancy stipulations and Crow Canyon policy. Landscaping fabric was used in the bottom of excavation units to protect prepared surfaces and to mark the extent of Crow Canyon's excavations. The pits and structures were then filled with layers of dirt and rocks as nearly as possible to the original ground contours. All Crow Canyon equipment and debris was removed from the site when fieldwork ended in October 1997.
Surface Indications Roomblocks were indicated by linear or rectangular rubble mounds. Towers were indicated by circular rubble mounds. Kivas were indicated by depressions, either on modern ground surface or within rubble mounds. Middens were indicated by relatively more surface artifacts, and in some areas, by stained sediment. Extramural walls were indicated by linear rubble. A north-south swale through the center of the site could indicate a road segment associated with the great kiva and possible Chacoan great house. Other surface indications are petroglyphs, extramural features, and a north-south trending berm at the west end of a large natural depression in the southwestern portion of the site.
Modern Ground Surface Collections No general surface collection of artifacts--the only artifacts collected were those within excavation units.
Treatment of Disturbed Areas Walls that had been exposed by nonprofessional excavators were recorded and photographed. Potholes that predated Crow Canyon's work at the site were left as-is.
Areas Disturbed by Crow Canyon Grasses and other small vegetation were removed from excavation areas--no trees and few shrubs were disturbed. Screening stations were established in numerous areas throughout the site; plastic sheeting was used to protect modern ground surface at each of these stations. For all three years of excavations, an office trailer used to house equipment was parked a few meters east of the north-south fenceline, oriented north-south, approximately 25 m north of the roomblock in Architectural Block 900. A 12 ft by 20 ft shade structure, oriented east-west, was constructed south of, and adjacent to, this trailer. In 1997, a second staging area, consisting of a shade structure, was built southeast of the roomblock in Architectural Block 2600. Two pit latrines were constructed; one was on the east side of the fenceline 200 m north of the roomblock in Architectural Block 900, the other was located in a large stand of oak brush approximately 70 m southeast of the roomblock in Architectural Block 100. Numerous trails were established and used by staff, excavators, and site visitors. Unmodified rocks found during excavation were piled beside each excavation unit and were used, along with the backdirt from the appropriate screening station, to backfill each unit when excavation was completed. Prior to Crow Canyon's final departure from the site in October 1997, all excavation units had been completely backfilled to match the preexisting topography as much as possible. Four primary mapping datum stakes were left in place when excavation ended; all other facilities, equipment, and debris from excavation were removed from the site.
Areas and Percent Damaged by Vandals The nature and extent of disturbance to the portion of the site owned by The Archaeological Conservancy is reported in a management and protection plan written by Kuckelman and Glowacki (1995*1) as part of Crow Canyon's research at the site. The site has been exposed to pothunting since the late 1800's. Crow Canyon mapped 805 visible potholes (located primarily in midden areas) on the portion of the site owned by The Archaeological Conservancy. Other types of damage include livestock grazing, rock collecting, quarrying roomblock rubble for road construction, farming, and college field school excavation to procure vessels for museum exhibits. The great tower complex was extensively dug (and partly backfilled) in 1931 by archaeological field school students from Western State College in Gunnison, Colorado.
Artifacts Not Collected All artifacts caught by 1/4-inch-mesh screen were collected. Architectural rocks such as building blocks, ventilator cover slabs, hatchway covers, and so forth were not collected.
Types of Surfaces Recognized Prepared (constructed) floors; outdoor (extramural) use surfaces. All features (except wall features) were inferred to have been associated with a surface of some type; thus, a surface was designated for each feature, regardless of whether a surface was visible.
How Artifact-Surface Associations Were Defined Artifacts were inferred to be associated with a surface if they contacted the surface or rested on an object that contacted the surface. Artifacts were inferred to be possibly associated with a surface if they were within 5 cm of the surface (if an artifact was within 5 cm of a surface, the elevation of the artifact relative to the surface was recorded).
Tree-Ring Sampling All burned and unburned wood specimens that appeared to contain 20 or more rings were collected as tree-ring samples. These samples were collected and securely wrapped in cotton string as promptly as possible after exposure to prevent drying and destruction of the sample. Tree-ring samples were point-located (i.e., the locations were documented both horizontally and vertically).
Archaeomagnetic Sampling None of the few hearths exposed during Crow Canyon's testing had been exposed to enough heat to derive archaeomagnetic dates.
Archaeobotanical (Flotation) Sampling Flotation samples were routinely collected from contexts containing burned organic material. These contexts included ashy midden deposits, hearth fills, ash deposits on kiva floors, and burned roof fall strata. Standard samples were 1 liter, but smaller samples were collected where a smaller deposit of burned material was encountered. Modern plant and animal disturbances were avoided when sampling.
Pollen Sampling No pollen samples were collected, as the structure floors we exposed (in the great tower complex) had been previously excavated in 1931 by a field school from Western State College, Gunnison, Colorado.
Other Sampling

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