"Artifacts," by Scott G. Ortman

Table 39. Axes and Mauls, Castle Rock Pueblo
PD FS Type Portion Present Material Length (cm) Width (cm) Thickness (cm) Bit Length (cm) Groove Type Weight Use Wear Inferred Use(s) Comments
22 5 ax bit fragment Morrison quartzite

unknown 25.8 several small flakes removed from bit edge, unclear if use wear or retouch unknown minimum width 5.5 cm, minimum bit length 3.21 cm
50 5 ax bit end Morrison quartzite

unknown 121.5 A few large flakes removed from bit edge, then bit was retouched before breaking off of parent piece unknown minimum bit length 5.1 cm, minimum thickness 2.2 cm
85 26 ax bit fragment Morrison quartzite

unknown 190.0 unclear whether high-point polish reflects original surface or polish resulting from use too heavy to be a weapon minimum width 8.9 cm, minimum thickness 2.7 cm, minimum bit length 7.74 cm
325 12 single-bitted ax complete Morrison quartzite 15.9 7.4 8.0 3.44 full 1187.4 one large flake removed from poll end, and heavily used bit, with several flakes and chunks removed wood chopping too heavy to be a weapon
460 5 ax bit end Morrison chert/siltstone

5.17 unknown 76.9 a few small flakes removed from bit edge, additional flakes removed bifacially from distal end of broken bit unknown may have served as a core after breakage, minimum width 6.4 cm, minimum thickness 3.0 cm
544 13 single-bitted ax complete Morrison quartzite 11.2 5.5 2.9 5.10 notches 223.4 a few small flakes broken off of bit edge weapon weight evenly balanced by placement of groove
559 7 ax/maul groove and one head unknown quartzite
7.3 3.3
full 232.7 large flakes removed from use, and battering damage stone working probably used as a peckingstone after it was no longer haftable
619 107 maul complete Morrison quartzite 10.7 6.7 4.0
notches 367.7 both heads battered, surface patination removed by haft wear stone working
630 14 ax flake from midsection Morrison chert/siltstone

unknown 16.9 unknown unknown portion of hafting groove present
731 34 ax bit fragment igneous

unknown 15.6 entire piece may have broken off an ax during use unknown minimum bit length 2.48 cm, minimum width 4.2 cm
775 18 single-bitted ax original bit missing Morrison chert/siltstone 8.9 6.3 3.3
full 233.9 bit broken off, then bifacial flaking, possibly resharpening, but no use wear on final bit edge, poll not utilized, groove polished from haft wood chopping or weapon
1016 1 single-bitted ax complete Morrison chert/siltstone 15.9 7.3 6.3 5.00 full 883.3 several large flakes removed from bit after polishing wood chopping
1089 3 ax/maul poll end Morrison chert/siltstone
7.5 4.2
3/4 274.2 one end, presumably the bit of a small ax, broken off, groove polished from haft unknown
1182 7 ax/maul 1/2 of poll end Morrison quartzite

at least 3/4 96.9 missing head was broken at proximal edge of groove, at least one flake removed after polishing stone working groove close to poll end, suggesting that a long ax bit was never present
1206 3 single-bitted ax original bit and 1/2 of original cross-section missing unknown quartzite 9.1 6.8 4.2
1/2 367.4 bit broken off during original use, subsequently used as a maul, with battering apparent, poll end not utilized, groove polished from haft wood chopping, then stone working groove only on rounded side, and flat side is polished across haft location
1213 6 maul complete igneous 24.3 12.0 7.8
notches 2,559.6 large flakes broken off both heads stone quarrying probably made from a metate fragment
PD = provenience designation; FS = field specimen.
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