Analytic Criteria for Pottery Types
Mark D. Varien
This appendix presents descriptions of the pottery types used in the Crow Canyon analysis of collections from the Site Testing Program. The discussion begins with a definition of Basketmaker Mudware, followed by the gray ware, white ware, and red ware types. The criteria for typological assignment are taken from the version of the Crow Canyon pottery manual in use during the Site Testing Program (Crow Canyon Archaeological Center 1990). Date ranges for each type are taken from Wilson and Blinman (1991) and Breternitz et al. (1974), and these documents are also sources for much of the information presented here.
Basketmaker Mudware (A.D. 575-700). This is the earliest pottery manufactured in the region, recognized on the basis of vegetal fiber temper and (sometimes) basket impressions on the exterior surface. The sherds in this category are poorly fired and range from reddish brown to gray brown in color. Like gray ware, Basketmaker Mudware is never painted, polished, or slipped, but it is so distinct from the gray ware described below that it warrants a separate classification.
Gray ware sherds are not painted, slipped, or polished. Wilson and Blinman describe a local gray ware type, Twin-Trees Gray, that has limited surface polish, but this type was not used in the Crow Canyon analysis. Gray ware sherds were fired in a neutral atmosphere, and tend to have coarser pastes than either white ware or red ware. Crushed rock is the most common temper found in gray wares of the Sand Canyon locality. It is usually coarse and often protrudes from the vessel surface. Crushed-sandstone temper characterizes the gray wares produced in the area between Montezuma Creek and Yellow Jacket Creek because igneous rock was not available in this area (Wilson 1991). Sand and sherd tempers occur sporadically in gray wares. Two broad gray ware categories are recognized on the basis of surface treatment: plain and corrugated. Plain gray wares were made before A.D. 900/950; these may or may not be neckbanded, depending on the specific type. Corrugated gray wares were made after A.D. 950. Specific Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray Ware types are distinguished by the degree of rim eversion.
Chapin Gray (A.D. 575-950). Chapin Gray vessels are gray wares on which the coils have been scraped smooth from the base of the vessel to the rim. Chapin Gray sherds can only be distinguished from other plain gray types if a neck or rim sherd is large enough to determine that neckbands are not present. Body sherds from Chapin Gray vessels are categorized as Indeterminate Plain Gray.
Known Chapin Gray vessel forms include wide-mouth cooking jars, storage jars, ollas, dippers, bowls, and seed jars. Chapin Gray is analogous to Lino Gray of the Cibola and Kayenta traditions, Rosa Gray of the upper San Juan tradition, and Bennett Gray of the Chuska tradition.
Moccasin Gray (A.D. 775-950). Moccasin Gray is distinguished by relatively wide, flat, nonoverlapping neckbands from approximately the shoulder of the vessel up to the rim. Only rim and neck sherds showing more than a single band can be typed as Moccasin Gray; rim and neck sherds with only a single band are classified as Indeterminate Neckbanded Gray. Plain gray sherds from below the shoulder would be categorized as Indeterminate Plain Gray.
Known Moccasin Gray vessel forms are predominantly wide-mouthed cooking or storage jars; ollas are extremely rare and other vessel forms are absent. Moccasin Gray is present as early as A.D. 775, but can be absent from assemblages dating as late as A.D. 800. It was consistently present after A.D. 820, was the dominant gray ware type between A.D. 840 and 870, and persisted in diminishing quantities through at least A.D. 950.
Mancos Gray (A.D. 850-975). Mancos Gray sherds are distinguished by the presence of relatively narrow and rounded nonoverlapping neckband coils or by wider, but overlapping, bands. The sherd must be a rim or neck sherd to be typed as Mancos Gray; body sherds below the neck are categorized as Indeterminate Plain Gray.
The predominant vessel form is a wide-mouthed cooking and storage jar. Mancos Gray appeared as early as A.D. 850, was consistently present after A.D. 860, was the dominant gray ware between A.D. 870 and 950, and persisted until A.D. 975. Mancos Gray is analogous to Kana'a Gray and most Coconino Gray of the Kayenta and Cibola traditions, and Gray Hills Banded, some Tocito Gray, and some Captain Tom Corrugated sherds of the Chuska tradition.
Indeterminate Neckbanded Gray (A.D. 775-975). This category is for neckbanded sherds that cannot be typed more specifically because (1) only one wide band is present, making it impossible to assess the degree of overlap between bands, or (2) the configuration of the coils or bands is transitional between Moccasin Gray and Mancos Gray.
Indeterminate Plain Gray (A.D. 575-975). This type includes (1) plain gray body sherds that are not from the rim or neck portion of the vessel, (2) plain gray rim and/or neck sherds that are too small to determine whether they came from a neckbanded vessel, and (3) plain gray rim and/or neck sherds that have ambiguous characteristics (for example, a sherd on which the neckbands have been only partly scraped over).
Mancos Corrugated Gray (A.D. 930-1200). Mancos Corrugated Gray sherds are distinguished from Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray sherds on the basis of degree of rim eversion. If the rim eversion is relatively straight up and down or only slightly flared, the sherd is typed as Mancos Corrugated Gray. Rim sherds for which rim eversion cannot be determined and body sherds below the rim are classified as Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray.
Wilson and Blinman (1991) argue that Mancos Corrugated dates predominantly between A.D. 930 and 1100. They recognize Dolores Corrugated as having rim eversion of 30 degrees to 55 degrees and argue it dates between A.D. 1050 and 1200. In their system, as well as Crow Canyon's, sherds must be from the rim and be large enough to determine the degree of rim eversion. In the tested sites analysis, however, Dolores Corrugated was not recognized. Thus, the time span assigned to Mesa Verde Corrugated in the tested sites analysis is longer than the date range for this type recognized by Wilson and Blinman (1991:14).
Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray (A.D. 1100-1300). The rims of Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray vessels are more flared than those of Mancos Corrugated Gray vessels. If rim eversion is estimated to be greater than 30 degrees, a rim sherd is classified as Mesa Verde Corrugated. A rim sherd must be large enough to assess the amount of eversion to be classified as Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray. Rim sherds too small to determine eversion and body sherds below the rim are classified as Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray.
Wilson and Blinman (1991:14) define Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray as having a rim eversion greater than 55 degrees. Thus, the tested sites analysis took what Wilson and Blinman would recognize as Dolores Corrugated Gray and combined it into Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray.
Mummy Lake Gray (A.D. 1050-1200). The distinguishing feature of Mummy Lake Gray is a single exposed band at the top of the vessel encircling the rim, which is frequently flared. The remainder of the vessel consists of corrugated coils that were scraped over, obliterating most or all of the corrugated texture. Mummy Lake Gray vessels and sherds are extremely rare.
Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray (A.D. 930-1300). Sherds are assigned to Indeterminate Local Corrugated Gray if (1) they are corrugated rim sherds that are too small to assess degree of rim eversion; (2) they are corrugated rim sherds with a degree of rim eversion that is intermediate between Mancos Corrugated Gray and Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray; or (3) they are corrugated body sherds.
White wares were the most common decorated pottery in the northern San Juan area, except during the Pueblo I period, when red wares were more common. With the exception of the Pueblo I period, the frequency of white wares in the total assemblage increases through time (Wilson 1991:762).
White ware sherds are either painted, polished, or slipped, or any combination of the three. Ordinarily, slip is found only on vessels that have been polished, but a polished vessel will not always have been slipped. White wares were fired in a neutral atmosphere. A more limited range of clays was used in the production of white wares than in the production of gray wares.
White wares made before A.D. 900 are less likely to have been as well polished and slipped than those made after A.D. 900, and some early white wares have no polish or slip. White wares tend to have finer paste than gray wares, particularly white wares made after A.D. 900. White wares made before A.D. 900 usually have crushed igneous rock temper; those made after A.D. 900 more often have crushed-sherd temper, although crushed igneous rock and sand temper can also be seen in the later white wares. The majority of white ware vessels have painted designs, but some vessels are unpainted. Mineral paint is more common on white wares made before A.D. 1150, and carbon (or organic) paint is more common on white wares made after A.D. 1150.
Chapin Black-on-white (A.D. 575-900). The surfaces of Chapin Black-on-white sherds are usually unpolished or only slightly polished, and slips are extremely rare. Crushed igneous rock is the most common temper. Vessel walls are thin relative to later types, and rims are thin, tapered, and rounded.
Designs are most commonly executed in iron or manganese mineral paint, although examples of glaze and organic pigment are known. Glaze pigment decoration is found on vessels in the Animas River valley assemblages and in some La Plata valley assemblages; organic paint occurs in southeast Utah. Chapin Black-on-white designs are usually simple, sparse, and poorly executed. Designs often radiate upward and outward from the center of bowls. Common design elements include, but are not restricted to, dots, z's, triangles, and tick marks.
Bowls are the most common vessel form, although seed jars, ollas, and effigy vessels are known. Bowl exteriors can have fugitive red coatings. Chapin Black-on-white was present as early as A.D. 575. It was the only decorated white ware present during the eighth century; its presence is rare after A.D. 800, but the type continued sporadically until A.D. 900. White wares that date to the ninth century often show characteristics intermediate between Chapin and Piedra black-on-white. Chapin Black-on-white has a range of design elements that are similar to Lino Black-on-white of the Kayenta tradition, La Plata Black-on-white of the Cibola tradition, Crozier Black-on-white of the Chuska tradition, and Rosa Black-on-white of the upper San Juan tradition.
Piedra Black-on-white (A.D. 775-900). Piedra Black-on-white surface treatment is variable, but it is distinguished from Chapin Black-on-white by the fact that it is usually polished (although the polish may be erratic). Early Piedra is unslipped, but the incidence of slipping increases through time. Rims are tapered and frequently decorated with a solid painted line. Fugitive red coatings can be present on bowl exteriors, but this is not common. Surface treatment is not as carefully or consistently executed as with later types. Crushed igneous rock is the most common temper. Bowls are the predominant vessel form; however, jars, gourd jars, pitchers, and dippers are also present.
Design layouts on bowls often consist of parallel lines that drop down from the rim and extend across the vessel surface; lines are thick and are spaced relatively close together. Flags, tick marks, and triangles frequently are appended to outer lines. Bowl exteriors are rarely painted, and jars frequently have parallel lines that wrap around the jar body. Piedra Black-on-white was the dominant white ware associated with Pueblo I sites between A.D. 775 and 900. Piedra Black-on-white shares some features with, but is not identical to, contemporaneous types in other regions including Kana'a Black-on-white of the Kayenta tradition, Drolet Black-on-white of the Chuska tradition, and Kiatuthlana Black-on-white of the Cibola tradition.
Early White Painted (A.D. 575-900). Early White Painted is a grouped type which includes sherds that are either Chapin Black-on-white or Piedra Black-on-white. This type is used when the sherd is too small, or lacks enough design, to determine a more specific type. This category probably contains sherds primarily from Chapin or Piedra black-on-white vessels. It is possible, however, that small sherds from unslipped and unpolished Mancos Black-on-white vessels are present in this category as well.
Early White Unpainted (A.D. 575-900). A sherd is placed in Early White Unpainted when (1) surface treatment, namely polish, indicates that it is a white ware; (2) the medium to coarse paste and crushed igneous rock temper indicate that it is from a vessel that dates before A.D. 900; and (3) no paint is visible on the sherd. Relatively thin sherds with tapered rims are also placed in this grouped type. It is possible, however, that small sherds from unslipped and unpolished Mancos Black-on-white vessels are present in this category as well.
Cortez Black-on-white (A.D. 880-1050). Cortez Black-on-white sherds are usually well polished and well slipped, and often have a crackled slip. Rims are rounded and tapered, and often, but not always, decorated with a solid painted line. Cortez Black-on-white is generally the thinnest of the Mesa Verde White Ware types. Temper is crushed sherd or crushed igneous rock. Decoration is almost always executed in mineral paint.
The design layout often divides the interiors of bowls into thirds or quarters, in which complex geometric patterns are repeated. Linear patterns with appended motifs similar to Piedra Black-on-white designs are still evident, but the lines on Cortez Black-on-white sherds are generally thinner and more widely spaced. Bowl exteriors are usually unpainted. Jars are often decorated with banded designs. Design motifs include dots, triangles, ticks, flags, ricrac, scrolls, interlocking scrolls, stepped triangles, squiggles, and squiggle hatchure. A wide range of vessel forms is seen, including bowls, jars, seed jars, and dippers.
The combination of surface treatment and design makes Cortez Black-on-white a distinctive type when compared to the continuous variation in the earlier Chapin Black-on-white and Piedra Black-on-white types, and the later Mancos, McElmo, and Mesa Verde Black-on-white types. The production of Cortez Black-on-white vessels began in the late ninth century; the type was the dominant white ware in the tenth century. It was replaced by Mancos Black-on-white starting around A.D. 1000, with replacement complete by A.D. 1050. Cortez Black-on-white design styles overlap with Naschitti Black-on-white, Newcomb Black-on-white, Red Mesa Black-on-white, and Arboles Black-on-white. Some design elements are shared with Kiatuthlana Black-on-white, Black Mesa Black-on-white, and Kana'a Black-on-white.
Mancos Black-on-white (A.D. 980-1150+). Mancos Black-on-white is characterized by wider variability in both technological and design style attributes than any other Mesa Verde White Ware type. Mancos Black-on-white includes both polished and unpolished, and slipped and unslipped examples. Temper is usually crushed sherd, although crushed rock is also present. Rims are tapered and rounded, and can be both unpainted or painted with a solid line. A wide range of vessel forms is present, including bowls, jars, ollas, and dippers.
Design layout is variable, ranging from broad panels and bands to "all-over" designs. Bowl exteriors are usually unpainted. Bold designs are common, especially Dogoszhi-style bands (rectilinear bands filled with diagonal hatchure, executed with squiggle or straight lines, or cross hatchure). Other design motifs include checkerboards, dots, triangles, stepped frets, scrolls, and "drip lines." Decoration is usually executed in mineral paint.
Mancos Black-on-white first appeared in the last decades of the tenth century. It was the most common white ware from A.D. 1000-1150, and was produced in lesser amounts until the A.D. 1200s. In other regions of the Southwest, types analogous to Mancos Black-on-white are subdivided in many ways, including the following: Gallup, Escavada, Puerco, and Chaco black-on-white of the Cibola tradition; Chuska, Toadlena, and Burnham black-on-white of the Chuska tradition; Black Mesa, Sosi, Dogoszhi black-on-white of the Kayenta region; and Kwahe'e Black-on-white in the upper Rio Grande.
Pueblo II White Painted (A.D. 900-1150). Pueblo II White Painted includes decorated white wares that, on the basis of surface treatment and sherd thickness, could be regarded as either Cortez Black-on-white or Mancos Black-on-white. Sherds assigned to this type are too small, or the painted designs are too ambiguous, to permit precise assignment. In the Site Testing Program analysis, many sherds on which a clear Mancos design could not be identified were assigned to this type.
McElmo Black-on-white (A.D. 1075-1300). McElmo Black-on-white is one of the most difficult types to categorize. This is due to the significant design overlap with Mesa Verde Black-on-white, and to a lesser extent with Mancos Black-on-white. Few pure McElmo Black-on-white assemblages are reported in the literature. There is more agreement on the distinctions between McElmo Black-on-white and Mancos Black-on-white than between McElmo Black-on-white and Mesa Verde Black-on-white. Many researchers choose not to separate McElmo and Mesa Verde black-on-white as distinct types.
McElmo Black-on-white is well polished and usually, but not always, well slipped. Vessel walls are slightly thicker than earlier white wares. Rims are thicker and more square than Mancos Black-on-white, but usually not as thick or square as Mesa Verde Black-on-white. If decorated, rims are painted with ticks, not solid lines. The majority of McElmo sherds are decorated with carbon paint. Mineral paint is the most common paint type on McElmo Black-on-white found in the area along the Colorado-Utah border (Wilson 1991).
McElmo designs are transitional between Mancos Black-on-white and Mesa Verde Black-on-white. On rim sherds, the arrangement of framing lines is used as the criterion to differentiate McElmo Black-on-white from Mesa Verde Black-on-white and Pueblo III White Painted.
The layout of McElmo designs is banded. Two varieties of the banded layout were recognized in our analysis system: (1) a banded design without framing lines (a framing line is a detached line that runs parallel to the main band of design, thus "framing" the design); (2) a banded design with a framing line that is tied to the main design or that touches the rim. Design elements incorporated into the bands include (but are not exclusively diagnostic of McElmo) triangles, checkerboards, stepped frets, and straight-line hatchure used between sets of parallel lines as a part of the main design. Simple designs occasionally occur on the exterior of bowls, but these are relatively rare, and not as complex as the designs that occur on the exterior of Mesa Verde Black-on-white bowls.
Thus, the tested sites analysis system relied on a narrow range of stylistic attributes (mostly painted designs, and to a lesser extent the shape of the rim) in defining McElmo Black-on-white. This has resulted in a small number of sherds being assigned to this type.
McElmo Black-on-white first appeared around A.D. 1075 and was dominant between A.D. 1150 and 1200. It continued to be made until the region was abandoned around A.D. 1300, but was less frequent than Mesa Verde Black-on-white during the thirteenth century. McElmo Black-on-white is similar, but not identical to, Nava Black-on-white in the Chuska tradition and Chaco-McElmo Black-on-white for the Cibola tradition. Some styles of Flagstaff Black-on-white of the Kayenta tradition also bear a slight resemblance to McElmo Black-on-white.
Mesa Verde Black-on-white (A.D. 1180-1300). Mesa Verde Black-on-white pottery is well polished and well slipped, often with a pearly luster. Mesa Verde Black-on-white is, in general, the thickest of the decorated white wares. Rims are square and often decorated with ticks, or more elaborate designs that include dots and lines. The paste is fine and usually tempered with crushed sherd; crushed rock and sand are seen less frequently. Designs are usually executed with carbon paint, but mineral paint and carbon/mineral paint mixtures are also present. Mineral paint enclaves include the bean-field country on the Colorado-Utah border and a separate area near Aztec, New Mexico. Mesa Verde Black-on-white designs occur most commonly on bowls, jars, kiva jars, and mugs, and less frequently on other vessel forms.
Design layout consists either of banded designs or centered, all-over designs. Banded designs are parallel to the rim. All-over designs are sectioned (for example, quartered) rather than banded. On banded designs, detached framing lines of nonuniform width isolate the main band of design from the rim and base of the vessel. The types of framing lines present on rim sherds with banded designs are used to distinguish Mesa Verde Black-on-white from McElmo Black-on-white and Pueblo III White Painted. All-over designs usually do not have framing lines, instead the design extends to the rim. However, a single detached framing line is present on some all-over designs. Decoration is likely to be more elaborate than on earlier types; more of the vessel surface is covered with design, more design elements are present, and bowl exteriors are more often decorated.
Design elements specific to Mesa Verde Black-on-white include framing lines (where a thick framing line detached from the rim is followed by multiple thin framing lines), hatching or cross-hatching (used as a background filler around primary designs), and all-over designs. All-over designs frequently consist of isolated "medallion" designs placed at even intervals around the vessel with hatching filling in the spaces between medallions. Other design elements frequently seen on Mesa Verde Black-on-white pottery (although not necessarily exclusive to this type) include "bear paws," stepped frets, checkerboards, pendant dots, and "musical note" designs. The "musical notes" in these designs are arranged on framing lines of nonuniform width.
Mesa Verde Black-on-white first appeared around A.D. 1180 and was made until the abandonment of the Mesa Verde region around A.D. 1300. This was the principal white ware after the first decades of the thirteenth century. Mesa Verde Black-on-white design is similar, but not identical to, other Pueblo III types in the northern Southwest including Tusayan Black-on-white of the Kayenta tradition, Crumbled House Black-on-white of the Chuska tradition, and Galisteo Black-on-white and Sante Fe Black-on-white of the Rio Grande tradition.
Pueblo III White Painted (A.D. 1075-1300). Pueblo III White Painted is another of the grouped types. This category is used to classify sherds that are clearly Pueblo III, but which do not meet the specific criteria established for either McElmo Black-on-white or Mesa Verde Black-on-white. Pueblo III White Painted is both a catchall for painted sherds that are small or where the designs are ambiguous, and a category with its own set of criteria by which it is recognized. In analysis systems that do not have grouped types, but only recognize traditional types, these sherds would be assigned to either McElmo Black-on-white or Mesa Verde Black-on-white.
Sherds assigned to this type are well polished and usually well slipped, have a fine paste, and are usually tempered with crushed sherd; crushed rock and sand are seen as well. Vessels are relatively thick, and rims are more square rather than tapered and round. Rims may or may not be decorated; if decorated, the design is generally simple rim ticking and not the elaborate rim designs found on Mesa Verde Black-on-white pottery. Designs are usually executed with carbon paint, although mineral, and mixed carbon and mineral paint, are also seen.
Design layout is banded. Larger sherds often show one of three common configurations: (1) banded designs paralleled by a single, thick, detached framing line; (2) banded designs paralleled by multiple framing lines of uniform width; and (3) banded designs made up entirely of concentric thick lines of uniform width and spacing.
The Pueblo III White Painted category is also used for sherds which are small or for which design elements are ambiguous. There are two cases where this applies and the following criteria are used to assign sherds to this type, rather than Late White Painted. First, any thick, painted sherd with fine paste, thick white slip, and a highly polished, lustrous surface--where the painted design is clearly not McElmo Black-on-white or Mesa Verde Black-on-white--is typed as Pueblo III White Painted. Second, any sherd with framing lines that does not meet the criteria for assignment to McElmo Black-on-white or Mesa Verde Black-on-white is classified as Pueblo III White Painted. Specific design elements on Pueblo III White Painted sherds are similar to those listed above for McElmo Black-on-white and Mesa Verde Black-on-white.
Pueblo III White Painted and Late White Painted are the only two types where paint composition (carbon or mineral) enters into the criteria for assigning sherds to a type. The way that paint type was used to assign sherds to these two categories changed during the course of analysis of the tested sites material. For analysis done in 1988, 1989, and early 1990, paint type was not used to distinguish Pueblo III White Painted from Late White Painted. However, after March 11, 1990, paint type was used to distinguish these two types--along with other attributes specified as criteria for distinguishing Pueblo III White Painted from Late White Painted. After March 11, 1990, all carbon paint sherds were classified as Pueblo III White Painted.
When making pottery comparisons involving the Pueblo III White Painted or Late White Painted types for any of the tested sites, it is important to take this change in the analysis into account. The following tested sites were analyzed before the change: Lillian's Site, Roy's Ruin, Shorlene's Site, Troy's Tower, Catherine's Site, and Stanton's Site. For these sites (analyzed before March 11, 1990), there are many more Late White Painted sherds--the vast majority of these have carbon paint. Sherds from Lester's Site were analyzed both before and after this change was made. Only a few sherds from Saddlehorn Hamlet and Castle Rock Pueblo were analyzed before this change was made; most sherds from these two sites were analyzed after March 1990. All sherds from Lookout House, G and G Hamlet, Kenzie Dawn Hamlet, and Mad Dog Tower were analyzed after the change.
Late White Painted (A.D. 900-1300). The criteria for assigning sherds to the Late White Painted category are more general than those used to assign sherds to the Pueblo III White Painted type. Late White Painted is used for sherds that have attributes that are recognized as definitely not Basketmaker III or Pueblo I; thus, these sherds are either Pueblo II or Pueblo III. Late White Painted sherds do not meet the criteria for assignment to a more specific Pueblo II or Pueblo III category. Usually, the Late White Painted category is used for sherds that are too small, show little painted design, or are too damaged to make a more specific identification. If paste, temper, and surface treatment indicate a post-A.D. 900 date of manufacture, but not enough of the painted design is left on the surface to assess design layout or to identify design elements, then the sherd is typed as Late White Painted.
Late White Painted sherds have medium to fine paste and, most often, crushed-sherd temper (although some crushed-rock and sand temper is also present). Sherds are usually slipped and polished (although the quality of this surface treatment is quite variable), and sherd thickness ranges from thin to very thick. For the most part, rim sherds are assigned to a more specific type; however, some small rims may be assigned to the Late White Painted category. Rims are usually thin, and if decorated, it is usually with a solid line. Thicker, squared rims that are decorated are assigned to either McElmo Black-on-white, Mesa Verde Black-on-white, or Pueblo III White Painted.
Usually so little of the painted design is present on sherds assigned to this type that design layout cannot be determined. If any of the design layouts specified above for the Pueblo II or Pueblo III white wares or grouped types are present, the sherd would not be assigned to Late White Painted.
As discussed above, paint type was not used to distinguish Pueblo III White Painted from Late White Unpainted during the analysis carried out between 1989 and 11 March, 1990. After this time, the presence of carbon paint was used, in conjunction with the other attributes listed above for the two types, to assign a sherd to Pueblo III White Painted. Before 11 March 1990, the vast majority of the sherds typed as Late White Painted have carbon paint. Most, but not all, of these Late White Painted sherds with carbon paint would have been classified as Pueblo III White had they been analyzed after the change in criteria. Analysts estimate that approximately 2 percent of the Late White Painted sherds with carbon paint would remain in the Late White Painted category on the basis of the other attributes that distinguish Late White Painted from Pueblo III White. Chapter 15 breaks down the Late White Painted category by paint type (carbon vs. mineral).
Late White Unpainted (A.D. 900-1300). The Late White Unpainted grouped type is used for white ware sherds with no painted decoration which, on the basis of surface treatment, paste, temper, or thickness, are interpreted as having been manufactured after A.D. 900. Paste is medium to fine, and temper is usually crushed sherd, although sand and crushed-rock temper are occasionally seen as well. Sherds are polished and slipped, although this surface treatment is of variable quality, and thickness ranges from thin to thick. Unpainted rims are assigned to the Late White Unpainted category regardless of whether they are tapered, or thick and square, if the paste, temper, and surface treatment indicate that they were produced in either the Pueblo II or Pueblo III period.
Indeterminate Local White Painted (A.D. 600-1300). Sherds classified as Indeterminate Local White Painted are believed to have been manufactured locally based on the paste and the temper. Sherds assigned to this category, however, are too small to assign to a more specific category.
This category was not used often, except at Kenzie Dawn Hamlet and G and G Hamlet. At these sites, sherds were found which were clearly not Pueblo III, but which could not be distinguished as being either early (Basketmaker III or Pueblo I) or Pueblo II. The analyst used the comments field in the database to indicate " Early" or "Pueblo II" for these sherds.
Indeterminate Local White Unpainted (A.D. 600-1300). Sherds are assigned to Indeterminate Local White Unpainted based on the same criteria used for Indeterminate Local White Painted; however, these sherds show no painted decoration. Like Indeterminate Local White Painted, there are elevated numbers of this category of sherds at Kenzie Dawn Hamlet and G and G Hamlet.
Before approximately A.D. 1050, most northern San Juan tradition red wares were manufactured in southeastern Utah (Blinman 1993); these are classified as San Juan Red Ware and are treated as local wares that were a part of the Mesa Verde tradition. San Juan Red Ware occurs earliest, and is the most common, in the western portion of the Mesa Verde region. They become increasingly less frequent from west to east, accounting for as much as 25 percent of the pottery assemblages on Alkali Ridge, 8 percent to 10 percent of the Pueblo I pottery assemblages in the Dolores area, and only small percentages of the assemblages in the Animas drainage (Wilson and Blinman 1991).
After approximately A.D. 1050, red ware production areas shifted to northeastern Arizona (Tsegi Orange Ware of the Kayenta tradition), and west-central New Mexico and east-central Arizona (White Mountain Red Ware). Both Tsegi Orange Ware and White Mountain Red Ware are treated as nonlocal pottery in the Crow Canyon analysis system.
Only the San Juan Red Ware was analyzed to type by Crow Canyon analysts. Other red wares were simply analyzed as Other Red Nonlocal or Unknown Red. These sherds were examined by Dean Wilson who, when possible, assigned the sherds to more specific types.
Abajo Red-on-orange (A.D. 700-850). Abajo Red-on-orange is recognized primarily on the basis of paint and background sherd color; design element and design layout are not as important as classifying white wares. Abajo Red-on-orange is characterized by an orange background with orange- to red-painted designs and crushed-rock temper. The sherds are highly polished, and the paint is polished as well. The core color is usually gray, indicating that the paste is an iron-rich clay that is reduced in its natural state. The orange surface is the result of the pottery being oxidized during firing. These sherds are usually not slipped, but when slipped, they are thin and washy slips when compared to the thick, strong slips associated with Deadmans Black-on-red.
Designs are relatively simple and bold. Design elements include straight lines, wavy lines, triangles, and ticked lines. Design layout may be bilateral, spiral, all-over, or, more rarely, banded.
Abajo Red-on-orange first appeared at approximately A.D. 700; the earliest appearance was in the western portion of the Mesa Verde region. It was the only red ware present until A.D. 780, but by A.D. 800 it was less common than Bluff Black-on-red, and by A.D. 850 it was no longer present. The predominant vessel form is the bowl, but occasionally other vessel forms are found.
Bluff Black-on-red (A.D. 750-940+). As with Abajo Red-on-orange, paint and background color of the sherd, more than design elements and layout, are used to assign sherds to Bluff Black-on-red. A sherd with crushed-rock temper and black paint on an orange background is classified as Bluff Black-on-red. These sherds are usually not slipped, but occasionally a thin, washy slip is present. Paint is sometimes specular hematite, and it may be polished. Paste characteristics are identical to Abajo Red-on-orange.
Design elements on early Bluff Black-on-red are identical to those on Abajo Red-on-orange. Through time, there is a trend toward increasingly fine linework and design elements, rather than the straight and wavy lines evident in the earlier Bluff pottery. On the later end of the Bluff Black-on-red range, the designs overlap with Deadmans Black-on-red designs.
Bluff Black-on-red began to succeed Abajo Red-on-orange about A.D. 780, and this transition was complete around A.D. 820. This type continued to be present in contexts dating to A.D. 940, and may have persisted until A.D. 1000.
Deadmans Black-on-red (A.D. 850-1100). This is the only San Juan Red Ware type for which painted design, in addition to paint and background color of the sherd, plays an important role in classification. Deadmans Black-on-red is usually slipped to a deep red color; it is this deep red slip more than any other attribute that distinguishes Deadmans Black-on-red from Bluff Black-on-red. These two types are further distinguished by black-painted designs; Deadmans Black-on-red designs are more similar to those found on Pueblo II white wares. Temper is crushed igneous rock.
Design elements include the use of bands filled with diagonal and squiggle hatchure and the use of nested straight thin lines with attached triangles. The hatchure design elements are often part of an all-over design layout (Dogoszhi-style). Deadmans Black-on-red designs are similar to Tusayan Black-on-red and Middleton Black-on-red (both Tsegi Orange Ware), reflecting a single northern ancestral Puebloan red ware style during the period of overlap between the two traditions (Wilson and Blinman 1991).
Deadmans Black-on-red began to replace Bluff Black-on-red sometime after A.D. 880, and the type persisted until A.D. 1100. This onset date is significantly later than the ending dates previously reported (Breternitz et al. 1974), due to identifying some slipped, black-painted sherds as Bluff Black-on-red--whereas earlier typologies categorized all slipped sherds as Deadmans Black-on-red. Distinguishing Deadmans Black-on-red from Tsegi Orange Ware in contexts dating to the mid-eleventh century requires a careful examination of temper. Deadmans has crushed igneous rock, sandstone, and sand tempers; Tsegi Orange Ware has sherd and sand tempers.
Indeterminate Local Red Painted (A.D. 700-1100). Red ware sherds with crushed-rock temper are assigned to Indeterminate Local Red Painted when (1) the paint color is ambiguous (neither red nor black--frequently the result of misfiring), or when (2) a sherd with black paint is too small or too eroded to determine design configuration and/or presence of a slip.
Indeterminate Local Red Unpainted (A.D. 700-1100). Any unpainted red ware sherd with crushed igneous rock temper is assigned to Indeterminate Local Red Unpainted.
Nonlocal, Other, and Unknown Pottery Types
A few sherds, based on the surface treatment, paste, or temper, were assigned to one of several general nonlocal categories during the initial analysis. The following nonlocal types are a part of the Crow Canyon analysis system: Other Gray Nonlocal, Other White Nonlocal, Other Red Nonlocal, Nonlocal Pottery, and Polychrome. All sherds assigned to one of these nonlocal categories were reexamined by Dean Wilson and whenever possible were assigned to a more specific type.
Some sherds, usually because they were very small or eroded, could not be assigned to a specific type; also, the analyst could not determine if the sherds were local or nonlocal. These sherds were assigned to one of several general unknown categories: Unknown Gray, Unknown White, Unknown Red, and Unknown Pottery.