A Descriptive and Interpretive Summary of Excavations,
Editor's Note: This chapter was originally published in 2003 as a stand-alone publication. It was revised in 2007 for incorporation into this publication. Most changes were minor and made to eliminate redundancies with other chapters in the publication. One substantive change, however, reflects a refinement to the dating of Sand Canyon Pueblo—specifically, the date inferred for the end of village occupation. In the original 2003 publication, the end date was given as "about A.D. 1285"; in this revised chapter, it has been changed to "about A.D. 1280." This change was based on the results of artifact analyses that had not been completed in 2003 and on the results of a study of village abandonment by Kuckelman (2007*1).
This chapter presents a summary of the Crow Canyon Archaeological Center's excavations at Sand Canyon Pueblo (Site 5MT765). During nine seasons of excavation, staff archaeologists and participants in the Center's research and education programs wholly or partly excavated 24 kivas, 82 rooms, four towers, and numerous middens, features, and other cultural deposits, for a total of approximately 5 percent of the surface area of the site. Our goal in this chapter is not to give a complete accounting of the results of these excavations, but to describe and interpret the archaeological context. Much of this chapter is devoted to discussions of construction sequence, spatial and functional associations between structures, and the abandonment of individual structures and groups of associated structures. Additional excavation details are available online in The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database, an online compilation of data and interpretations at the level of the individual study unit, and in the multisite research database, which includes information about Sand Canyon Pueblo and other sites investigated by Crow Canyon.
Sand Canyon Pueblo included an estimated 420 rooms, 90 kivas, 14 towers, an enclosed plaza, a D-shaped bi-wall building, a great kiva, and other structures and features (Database Map 4001). Most of the pueblo was built inside a masonry wall that enclosed the village on the west, north, east, and southwest. Inside the wall, masonry structures were built both on the canyon rim and on the slopes below the rim. Structures appear to be clustered into discrete groups, designated architectural blocks (Adams 1984*4:12; Bradley 1992*2:80). Each block is generally composed of multiple kiva suites or of a public building (such as a great kiva) and its associated structures. Crow Canyon researchers define a kiva suite as a single, ordinary- or clan-size kiva and all the buildings, outdoor spaces, and refuse inferred to have been directly associated with it (Bradley 1992*2:81).
Crow Canyon Excavations at Sand Canyon Pueblo: An Overview
The excavations at Sand Canyon Pueblo were conducted by a team consisting of staff archaeologists, staff educators, interns, volunteers, and thousands of adult and student participants in the Center's research and education programs. Fieldwork was directed by E. Charles Adams from 1983 to 1984 and by Bruce A. Bradley from 1985 to 1993. Chapter 2 presents a year-by-year summary of the excavations and provides the names of other individuals who contributed to both the fieldwork and postexcavation effort that has culminated in the publication of this volume.
The excavations at Sand Canyon Pueblo were guided by the research design for the larger Sand Canyon Archaeological Project, which is discussed in Chapter 2 (paragraphs 23–27). Also included in Chapter 2 (paragraphs 28–32) is a summary of the sampling strategy and objectives at Sand Canyon Pueblo specifically. In general, excavations at Sand Canyon Pueblo were designed to investigate community structure, cultural change, and regional depopulation in the late thirteenth century A.D. (Bradley 1992*2:79). The main objectives were to learn about the chronology and use history of the pueblo and to better understand how the village functioned in relation to smaller habitations in the surrounding area.
The paragraphs that immediately follow (paragraphs 69) provide important background information about sampling strategy, labeling conventions, and kiva construction at Sand Canyon Pueblo that will help the reader understand the individual block descriptions and the maps linked to text passages. Far more (and more-detailed) information about the site and its environs and the excavation and interpretation of specific study units can be found in The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database and in the multisite research database.
Four strategies were employed in Crow Canyon's excavations at Sand Canyon Pueblo. Three of these strategiesthe intensive excavation of selected kiva suites, the test excavation of selected individual kivas, and the test excavation of buildings suspected of being public architecture or community architecture (as opposed to ordinary domestic structures)were "judgmental" in nature; that is, they focused on contexts that were believed to have the potential to yield specific kinds of information (see Database Map 4001). The fourth strategy consisted of the excavation of a stratified random ("probability") sample of nonarchitectural areas of the site. During this phase of field research, areas of the site that appeared to be devoid of structures were divided into three sampling strata; randomly selected 2-x-2-m test pits were then excavated within each stratum (Database Map 4002). Most of the inferences presented in this chapter are based on data generated from the judgmental excavations, but some interpretations also draw on the results of the random-sample testing, particularly when test units yielded important tree-ring samples or unexpectedly revealed buried cultural features, such as masonry walls (see, for example, Database Map 4005 and Database Map 4009).
Study Unit Labeling Conventions
At all sites excavated by Crow Canyon researchers, study units are referred to by type and number. The type names correspond to three broad descriptive categoriesstructures, nonstructures, and arbitrary units. Each study unit number is unique, with the first one or two digits corresponding to the number of the architectural block in which the study unit is located, and the last one or two digits being assigned sequentially within the block. Thus, at Sand Canyon Pueblo, Architectural Block 1200 includes Structure 1202 (a room), Structure 1203 (a tower), Structure 1206 (a kiva), and Nonstructure 1214 (a midden). In the associated online databases, most study unit information is organized and accessed according to these designations. In this chapter, however, and on the maps included in the online databases, study units are referred to by more-specific, culturally and archaeologically meaningful descriptors such as "room," "tower," "kiva," and "midden." Thus, Structures 1202, 1203, and 1206 are referred to in this text and on the maps as Room 1202, Tower 1203, and Kiva 1206, respectively, and Nonstructure 1214 is referred to as Midden 1214. It therefore is the number of the study unit, rather than the descriptive label, that allows the reader to find information in the databases that corresponds to the information presented in this text.
Several structures at Sand Canyon Pueblo are inferred to have had two stories (see paragraph 13 for a description of the criteria used to identify second-story structures). In these cases, the two stories were assigned separate structure numbers, and information about each was entered into the database separately. On the database maps, the number of the upper structure appears above the number of the lower structure, and a horizontal line separates the two designations (see, for example, the two-story building consisting of Rooms 1217 [upper] and 1205 [lower] on Database Map 4159). Similarly, in text, the two numbers are separated by a slash, and the number of the upper story precedes that of the lower story (for example, Rooms 1217/1205).
Kiva Construction at Sand Canyon Pueblo
Most ancient kivas in the Mesa Verde region were circular, subterranean structures whose walls were finished with masonry veneer. The veneer covered, and was supported by, the sediments into which the structure had been excavated prehistorically. At Sand Canyon Pueblo, however, the presence of large expanses of bedrock at, or slightly below, the prehistoric ground surface dictated that most kivas be built aboveground. These structures were built within masonry "enclosing structures," which were usually rectangular and which supported the masonry veneer of the kiva walls in much the same way that earth supported the walls of subterranean kivas. The construction of a circular structure within a rectangular enclosure resulted in the creation of four small spaces between the veneer wall and the enclosing wall. Many of these corner spaces were deliberately filled with rubble as part of kiva construction. Others, however, were roofed and maintained as usable space, probably for storage. Most of these "kiva corner rooms" at Sand Canyon Pueblo were connected to the main chamber of the associated kiva by a small opening in the upper lining wall of the kiva; however, a few were connected by an opening through a wall of the kiva's ventilation tunnel (see Database Map 4048 and Database Map 4205). Because these openings, called "pass-throughs," are not large enough to have accommodated an adult or even a large child, it is assumed that entry into corner rooms was through roof hatchways (see feature definitions in the field manual). This assumption is strengthened by the discovery of hatchways in two preserved corner-room roofs at the site (in Rooms 1219 and 1222). All corner rooms at Sand Canyon Pueblo were assigned their own structure numbers, different from the numbers assigned to their associated kivas.
Definitions, Assumptions, and Inferences
Paragraphs 1128 contain explanatory information pertinent to the interpretations presented in this chapter. Definitions of some frequently used archaeological terms are provided, as are explanations of the principles used to interpret tree-ring dates, construction sequences, associations between structures, and abandonment processes.
As the term is used in this chapter, a wall abutment is an intersection of walls where the stones of the two walls do not overlap or interconnect (Database Photo 3289); often, the end of one wall is built against the face of the other. A wall that is abutted by another wall is inferred to have been constructed earlier than the wall that abuts it. Conversely, a wall that abuts another wall is inferred to have been constructed later than the wall it abuts. However, it is important to note that abutments indicate sequence of construction only, and no particular length of time between the two constructions is implied or inferred. In fact, two walls involved in an abutment could have been constructed the same day, or many years apart.
Tied walls contain at least a few stones that overlap between the walls (see, for example, Database Photo 3327). Any two tied walls are usually inferred to have been built at one time, and this is the principle used to infer construction sequence in this chapter. However, there is evidence to suggest that, in some instances of ancient Pueblo construction in this region, stones were left protruding from the face or the end of a wall as a "planned tie." In those instances, it appears that masons recognized that tied walls were structurally superior to abutted walls and, when building one wall, left some rocks protruding from a corner in the direction that they anticipated subsequent construction. No planned ties (either subsequently used or not) were recognized during Crow Canyon's excavations at Sand Canyon Pueblo.
The heights of extant walls of masonry surface structures varied widely at the site (compare Database Photo 1902 and Database Photo 1938), as did the sizes of rubble mounds in various architectural blocks. It is clear that the walls of some structures were taller than was necessary for single-story buildings, and, in some structures, stratigraphic evidence suggests that more than one story might have been present originally. However, in this publication, as well as in The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database, a building is interpreted as having two stories only if there is clearly documented evidence that the structure walls continued above at least one preserved roof-beam socket or roof-support ledge (see Database Photo 2041). Because the amount of rubble within and around structures was not quantified, it is not used as a criterion for inferring the original existence of multiple stories.
Three modes of entry into structures were found at this sitefloor-level doorways, raised-sill doorways, and hatchways. By definition, the bottom of a floor-level doorway is flush with the floor of the structure (Database Photo 3515). The bottom of a raised-sill doorway is above the floor of the structure (Database Photo 3489). A hatchway is an opening in a roof (Database Photo 2968).
Structures that were physically "connected" in some manner are inferred to have been associated with each other in ways that structures with no such connection were not. Inferences of associations between structures are based primarily on the existence and locations of openings that allowed mutual passage or access between structures, a method commonly used to analyze the use of space (Bradley 1992*2:9495, 1993*1:2933; Goodwill-Cohen 2001*1; Hillier and Hanson 1984*1; Kent 1990*2; Kuckelman 1977*1). Other clues to associations between structures are proximity and structure orientation. In a few instances, different portions of the same broken vessels were found in multiple structures, which is also viewed as possible evidence of association between structures.
Kiva corner rooms are always assumed to have been associated with the kiva to which they are connected by an opening ("pass-through") through the wall. Because these openings are not large enough to have been doorways, it is inferred that they allowed the transfer of objects between the two structures. A person in the kiva could have reached through the opening to obtain an object in the corner room; however, all observed corner rooms, with the possible exception of those associated with Kiva 306 (Database Map 4083), would have been too large both horizontally and vertically for the contents to have been fully accessible to someone reaching through the pass-through from the kiva side. In addition, some objects found in corner rooms (see, for example, Room 118, Database Map 4048) are too large to have fit through the pass-through. Therefore, it is assumed that corner rooms allowed entry through hatchways in their roofs (also see paragraph 9).
In this chapter, estimates of when buildings and kiva suites were constructed rely heavily on the results of tree-ring dating. Stem-and-leaf plots, which are visual displays of tree-ring dates by decade, are accessible for each study unit for which tree-ring dates are available from Sand Canyon Pueblo (see stem-and-leaf plots). More-detailed tree-ring information, including date suffixes and species identifications, is provided in The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database. Also contained in the database are discussions and interpretations of tree-ring dates by study unit; it is important for the reader to be aware that the dating arguments for individual study units (structures and nonstructures) are provided in the database and are not repeated in this chapter; rather, only the final conclusions reached in those discussions are presented herein.
All tree-ring dates, which were generated by the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research in Tucson, Arizona, are presented with suffixes that indicate whether a given date is a cutting or a noncutting date. The following suffixes are used by the tree-ring laboratory:
B = Bark is present.
r = Less than a full section is present, but the outermost ring is continuous around the available circumference.
v = A subjective judgment that, although there is no direct evidence of the true outside on the sample, the date is within a very few years of being a cutting date.
vv = There is no way of estimating how far the last ring is from the true outside; many rings may be lost.
+ = One or a few rings may be missing near the outside whose presence or absence cannot be determined, because the series does not extend far enough to provide adequate cross dating.
++ = A ring count is necessary beyond a certain point in the series because cross dating ceases.
The suffixes "B" and "r" indicate cutting dates; that is, the year given is the year the tree died. The suffix "v" is considered by many researchers, including the authors of this chapter, to be near enough to the year the tree died to be interpreted as a cutting date. The suffix "vv" indicates a noncutting date.
Of the 751 datable tree-ring samples from Sand Canyon Pueblo submitted to the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, 723 (96 percent) are juniper wood and 22 (3 percent) are pinyon pine (the remainder are wood from other trees; see The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database). However, these few pinyon samples yielded many of the latest dates for the site (the mean of the 22 dates from pinyon samples is A.D. 1246, whereas the mean of the 723 dates from juniper samples is A.D. 1177). The reason for this is not obvious. The residents might have increased their use of pinyon timbers in building construction late in the occupation of the village. There is no question that pinyon wood was used for some roof construction at this site, because the nearly intact roof of Room 1519 included two small-diameter pinyon timbers (dated to A.D. 1202vv and 1218+r). However, several pinyon samples that dated from late in the occupation of the village were found in refuse, in burned features, or in ambiguous contexts rather than in deposits of obvious roofing material; therefore, at least some of the pinyon samples undoubtedly are from fuelwood (for example, tree-ring laboratory sample no. 409, from Kiva 208, Feature 34) rather than from construction wood. For this reason, dates derived from pinyon samples are interpreted conservatively, both in this chapter and in the dating inferences contained in The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database. Dates from samples that might have been fuelwood are inferred to reflect time of occupation rather than time of construction of specific buildings.
The basic principles and assumptions used to interpret the 751 tree-ring dates for Sand Canyon Pueblo are consistent with those developed by Dean (1982*2) and Ahlstrom (1985*1) and later summarized by Lightfoot (1994*1:2526). Specifically, interpretations of tree-ring dates, as presented both in this chapter and in The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database, are based on the following assumptions:
There are some structures at Sand Canyon Pueblo for which no tree-ring dates are available; when possible, wall ties and abutments are used in combination with tree-ring dates from other structures in the same architectural block to infer construction sequences within the block. For architectural blocks for which few or no tree-ring dates are available, the presence of specific pottery types was used for dating. This method is far less precise than tree-ring dating, and the results, rather than reflecting the time of construction, indicate the entire span of use.
In this chapter, several principles and lines of evidence are used to infer abandonment type and circumstance at the level of the kiva suite and architectural block; the abandonment of individual structures is addressed in The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database. As discussed in the following paragraphs, the types of refuse present in structures, the stratigraphic position of that refuse, the context and condition of human remains, and the condition of structure roofs all provide important clues about abandonment.
Secondary refuse is defined by Schiffer (1972*1:161, 1987*1:5864) as material discarded away from its location of use. In The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database, the presence of this type of refuse on a structure floor is the basis for the inference that the structure was used for the disposal of refuse about the time it was abandoned. Secondary refuse found in structure fill obviously would have been deposited later than the material resting on the floor of the same structure. In either case, the presence of secondary refuse is used in this chapter to infer that one or more nearby structures continued to be occupied after the structure in question was abandoned. Conversely, the absence of secondary refuse or other types of culturally deposited material in the fills of multiple, clustered structures indicates that a particular structure and the other structures in the immediate vicinity were all abandoned at the same time.
De facto refuse is defined as still-usable materials left behind at abandonment (Schiffer 1972*1:160, 1987*1:89). At Sand Canyon Pueblo, an abundance of this type of refuse on a floor or outdoor use surface or in collapsed roofing material is used to infer either that the departure of the residents was hasty and unplanned or that the anticipated move was over a long distance and all belongings could not be transported. Further, the preservation of this type of assemblage indicates that, after the residents of the structure or kiva suite migrated from the village, no one scavenged the items. It is possible that the residents of the structures containing large quantities of de facto refuse were some of the last to depart from the area in the late A.D. 1200s or that, when these villagers left, so many other residents of the village and the area were also migrating that there was generally little demand for additional material possessions.
A great deal of the data used to study the events surrounding the abandonment of structures and kiva suites at Sand Canyon Pueblo derives from materials that were found in "abandonment contexts." This type of context reflects the final cultural use of, or event that occurred in, a specific location, as evidenced by the absence of culturally deposited material above (that is, stratigraphically later than) the deposit in question. For example, artifacts on the floor of a structure would not be inferred to be in an abandonment context if the fill of the structure contained secondary refuse or some other type of culturally deposited material.
The presence of human remains in abandonment contexts is particularly important in interpreting the circumstances surrounding the abandonment of structures and kiva suites.1 All human remains are inferred to be in abandonment contexts unless there is evidence that the remains were formally interred or there is culturally deposited material above the remains. It is assumed that, under normal circumstances at Sand Canyon Pueblo, human remains were formally buried; the presence of remains in abandonment contexts therefore could indicate abnormal circumstances that prevented formal interment. Careful taphonomic2 study of human remains found in this type of context, regardless of the degree of articulation, is imperative in determining the final events that occurred at a site. Furthermore, it is likely that the greater the number of individuals represented by the remains found in contemporaneous abandonment contexts at a site, the greater the likelihood that the circumstances surrounding the end of the occupation of the settlement involved a catastrophe, such as warfare or an epidemic.
Another important line of evidence in interpreting the abandonment of kiva suites and architectural blocks is the state of the roofing material. A few roofs at Sand Canyon Pueblo were intact (in place), or nearly intact, at the time of Crow Canyon's excavations (Database Photo 2968); other structures contained collapsed roofing sediment and rotted beams (Database Photo 3167). All these roofs had been left intact when the structures were abandoned. Still other structures contained sediment from their collapsed roofs, but little or no evidence of the timbers; it is inferred that the roof timbers from these structures might have been salvaged prehistorically.
The roofs of numerous structures at the site had burned to some extent (Database Photo 1979). For three reasons this burning is assumed to have been intentional. First, it has been demonstrated that earth-covered structures do not readily burn accidentally (Glennie 1983*1; Wilshusen 1986*1:247). Second, the burning of structures does not appear to have been a random occurrence, either through time or by type of structure (Wilshusen 1986*1). And, third, a structure that burned accidentally could be expected to contain many household items, both perishable and nonperishable, that could not be safely removed after the structure had begun to burn. There are few structures dating from any period in this region that fit this description (Cameron 1990*2; Schlanger and Wilshusen 1993*1; Varien 1999*1:118121; Wilshusen 1986*1). At Sand Canyon Pueblo, all structures that contained substantive evidence of burning were kivas. The kivas in which the burned roofing material rested on the floor are inferred to have been burned at the same time the structures were abandoned. In other structures, the burned material rested on a layer of naturally deposited sediment; this indicates that these structures had been abandoned for some time before their roofs were burned.
Chapter Content and Organization
This chapter contains descriptive and interpretive summaries at the level of the individual kiva suite and architectural block. The summaries are based primarily on field data generated during Crow Canyon's excavations at the site. Although reference is made to individual cultural study units (such as structures, middens, and extramural surfaces) for the purposes of developing arguments at the level of the kiva suite and architectural block, detailed descriptions and interpretations of those study units are not included in this chapter. Instead, the reader is referred to The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database and the research database for more-detailed information. To access the overall site map, click here. (NOTE: if you would like to keep the map accessible as you read text, open it in a new tab or window.)
As mentioned in Chapter 1, paragraph 9, many works containing information about Sand Canyon Pueblo have been published over the years, while data were still actively being generated and scrutinized. It therefore is not surprising that some of the earlier publications contain data and interpretations that differ from some of the data and interpretations presented in this chapter. It is impractical to call to the reader's attention every discrepancy between earlier publications and this chapter, but several of the more important shifts in interpretation are noted throughout the text.
The following block summaries are presented in numerical order by architectural block. Each summary begins with a list of the structures, extramural surfaces, and middens excavated by Crow Canyon in that particular block. The remainder of each discussion focuses on (1) the spatial arrangement of excavated structures, (2) the sequence of construction and the dating of specific building episodes, (3) possible associations between structures, and (4) the abandonment of structures and kiva suites.(3) A brief synthesis is provided at the end of each block summary. The plaza and the site-enclosing wall are examined in separate sections, a discussion section addresses various site-wide topics, and conclusions are then presented.
Crow Canyon's testing of Block 100 included the complete excavation of two circular, aboveground kivas (Kivas 102 and 108); a subrectangular, aboveground kiva (Kiva 107); a D-shaped tower (Tower 101); three aboveground rooms interpreted as storage rooms (Rooms 104, 105, and 106); and three kiva corner rooms (Rooms 116, 117, and 118) (Database Map 4021, Database Map 4001). A portion of an additional aboveground room (Room 110, Database Map 4022) and an extramural surface (Arbitrary Unit 114, Database Map 4053), as well as portions of two middens (Middens 103 and 109, Database Map 4021), were also excavated. Three kivas were excavated in this architectural block; thus, at least three kiva suites are represented within the excavated group of structures.
Most of the excavated structures in this block abut the south, or inside, face of the site-enclosing wall; however, Tower 101a D-shaped towerabuts the north face. An apparent kiva depression is just west of the excavated structures, and the area immediately south and southeast of the excavated structures appears to have been open space. The sparse structures adjacent to the east seem to include a few rooms and a kiva, and the drainage that divides the site is just east of those buildings. Although there are some unanswered questions with regard to wall junctures (tied vs. abutted) within the group of excavated structures in this block, the construction sequence outlined below is believed to be the most likely.
It is probable that the first construction in the intensively excavated portion of Block 100 was the segment of the site-enclosing wall that extends west from the southeast corner of Tower 101 (see Database Map 4021). The east end of this wall segment is tied to the remains of a north-south wall, forming the northeast corner of an unnumbered structure that would have predated Room 106. This north-south wall was later modified during the construction of Kiva 102. Also tied to the site-enclosing wall is a stub of a different north-south wall that later formed the north end of the west wall of Kiva 107. There is a niche in the east face of this wall stub. The presence of this feature suggests that the stub was originally part of the west wall of an enclosed structure (the unnumbered structure mentioned previously), because niches are seldom found in the exterior faces of walls. Or, it is possible that the niche was added after Kiva 107 was built. The tying of this west wall to the site-enclosing wall indicates that a structure, or at least the stub, was built at the same time as this section of the site-enclosing wall and predated Kiva 107. The stub could be all that is left of the west wall of the unnumbered structure whose east wall was the first north-south wall mentioned above.
There are other structural remains in this immediate area that predate the construction of Room 106 and Kiva 107. However, the data are too incomplete to permit the reconstruction of the early history of this part of the block, due in part to the reluctance of the excavators to destroy the later structures to investigate earlier structures. For example, the portion of the west wall of Kiva 107 that is south of the aforementioned stub was probably originally part of a structure that postdated the unnumbered structure mentioned above but predated Kiva 107. Evidence of this is the location of a pass-through (Feature 4) in this wall (Database Map 4040). The lower portion of this pass-through is below the level of the floor of Kiva 107. After the structure associated with the pass-through was built, additional walls were constructed in this area, evidenced by sections of at least two walls (Database Map 4053) beneath the floor of Kiva 107. Of these, the north-south wall (Arbitrary Unit 114, Feature 3) was built first. The wall oriented northeast-southwest (Arbitrary Unit 114, Feature 2) was then built, abutting both the north-south wall (Feature 3) and the west wall of Kiva 107. These walls, as well as a bedrock feature, are associated with the surface (Arbitrary Unit 114, Surface 1) below the floor of Kiva 107.
The two doorways in this same section of site-enclosing wall were also constructed when this part of the wall was built (Database Map 4040). These doorways provided access between Tower 101 and the structure that originally occupied the space south of the site-enclosing wall. Tower 101 was also probably built at the same time as, or shortly after, this section of site-enclosing wall. Two lines of evidence support this inference. The first is the presence of the doorway; there would have been no need for a general-access opening through the site-enclosing wall in this location, which was just a few meters from the end of the wall when the doorway was constructed. The second line of evidence is the presence of a niche (Feature 3) that was built into the north face of the enclosing wall when the wall was constructed (Database Map 4026). The presence of this feature suggests that when this section of wall was built, the construction of Tower 101 was planned. This tower thus might have been built at the same time as the enclosing wall, or might have been built shortly thereafter. The one tree-ring date for Tower 101 suggests that this building was constructed or repaired after A.D. 1250.
Sometime after Tower 101 was built, a new section of site-enclosing wall was constructed that abutted both the east wall of the tower and the existing segment of the site-enclosing wall, which formed the northeast corner of what would eventually become Room 106. This abutment, the only one observed in the excavated portions of the site-enclosing wall, marks a clear construction break (but see paragraph 169 and paragraph 171 for a discussion of other discontinuities in the wall). This new section of site-enclosing wall continued approximately 10 m to the east, where it was tied to a north-south wall that forms the east enclosing wall of Kiva 108. Because only the top course of this eastern kiva-enclosing wall was exposed, it is not possible to state whether the entire wall, as well as the south kiva-enclosing wall to which it is tied, was built at the same time as the site-enclosing wall. It appears that it was not built at the same time as the site-enclosing wall, however, because the south enclosing wall around Kiva 108 abuts the east enclosing wall around Kiva 102, and this east wall abuts, and so was built after, the site-enclosing wall. Thus, if the ties and abutments as documented are correct, then the entire east enclosing wall of Kiva 108 was probably not built in the same construction event as the site-enclosing wall. This east wall appears to have been completed, and the entire south wall built, in a later construction event, probably after Kiva 102 and its corner rooms were built. In fact, it is possible that Kiva 108 was the last of the excavated structures in this block to have been built.
Kiva 102 and its associated corner rooms (Rooms 116 and 117) were probably built at one time. A portion of the wall that encloses this kiva on the west had already been constructed as part of one or more undefined, unnumbered structures located west of Kiva 102. Those undefined structures predate Kiva 102 and probably predate all the buildings in this group of excavated structures. The other enclosing walls around Kiva 102 abut that west enclosing wall in two places. The construction of the enclosing walls around Kiva 102 apparently altered the south end of what became the east wall of Room 106. Kiva 102 is inferred to have been built in either A.D. 1271 or 1274 (see stem-and-leaf plot). The A.D. 1274 dates are from pinyon pine samples (see paragraph 19 for a discussion of the interpretation of pinyon pine dates), and abundant refuse was present in the collapsed roofing material. However, there is no information in the field documentation that suggests that these samples were collected from refuse rather than from the roofing elements in this structure. Alternatively, it is possible that the kiva was built in A.D. 1251 and was repaired in the 1270s. Kiva 108 and its associated corner room (Room 118) would have been built sometime after Kiva 102.
Rooms 104 and 105 are also inferred to have been built after Kiva 102, because the wall that divides these two rooms abuts both the site-enclosing wall and the enclosing wall around Kiva 102. However, the time that passed between the construction of Kiva 102 and the construction of the two rooms need not have been lengthy, and the rooms could even have been built later in the same construction event in which Kiva 102 was created. Sometime after Kiva 102 was built, Kiva 107 was constructed. Most of the walls of Kiva 107 already existed; however, the western portion of the south wall and the northern portion of the east wall would have been built at this time. The construction of the latter also created Room 106.
One additional room, Room 110, was partly exposed during excavations in this architectural block. This room is located in the southwestern portion of the architectural block, approximately 20 m southwest of the group of excavated structures discussed above (see Database Map 4005, Database Map 4022, and Database Map 4001). There are no tree-ring dates for the room, and the relationship, if any, between this room and the group of excavated rooms could not be determined. It is likely that this room was associated with other structures in the southwestern portion of the block.
Associations Between Excavated Structures
There are few data on which to base inferences of associations between the intensively excavated structures in this block. Tower 101 was associated with Kiva 107as well as with earlier structures located in the space eventually occupied by Kiva 107by virtue of a shared doorway (Database Photo 2687). Rooms 116 and 117 (corner rooms) clearly were associated with Kiva 102, and Room 118 (another corner room) was associated with Kiva 108. It is not clear which kivas were associated with Rooms 104, 105, and 106, although Room 106 was created when the east wall of Kiva 107 was built and so might have been associated with that kiva. Rooms 104 and 105 appear to have been constructed, or at least planned, when Kiva 102 was built, and thus they might have been associated with that kiva. It is possible that Kiva 108 was associated with unexcavated surface rooms adjacent to the northeast.
Additional possible evidence of associations between structures consists of the locations of portions of the same vessels in abandonment contexts in different structures. Different portions of Vessel 25, a Mesa Verde Black-on-white kiva jar, were found in the following contexts: (1) on the floor and in the roof fall and other fill of Room 105 (a storage room), (2) in a niche in Room 116 (a kiva corner room), (3) in two pit features and the structural fill of Kiva 107, (4) and in the fill of Kiva 102. Portions of Vessels 44 (a Mesa Verde Corrugated Gray jar) and 81 (a Pueblo III White Painted kiva jar) were found on or near the floor and in the roof fall of Kiva 107 and also just above the floor in Kiva 102. The distribution of these sherds could indicate that Kiva 102 (and its associated corner rooms), Room 105, and Kiva 107 were used or inhabited by one group. Or, the distributions could have resulted from ritual abandonment, chaotic abandonment events associated with these structures, or brief postabandonment reuse of the structures. The distributions also suggest that those specific structures, at least, were all in use when this portion of the architectural block was abandoned.
Most of the excavated structures in Block 100 appear to have been abandoned simultaneously. However, Room 110, the partly excavated surface room 20 m southwest of the group of excavated structures, contained a small amount of refuse; the presence of refuse suggests that this structure was abandoned before the other structures in that immediate vicinity were abandoned. None of the structures in the group of intensively excavated structures (shown on Database Map 4021) contained culturally deposited fill, and therefore all are inferred to have been abandoned simultaneously.
Some characteristics of the artifacts found in abandonment contexts in these structures provide clues to abandonment events. Portions of the same vessels were found in several different structures, and none of these sherds shows evidence of having been used as a tool after its parent vessel broke. However, it is not possible to determine the specific circumstances and behaviors that led to the distribution of the sherds. In addition, even though there were few floor-associated artifacts in some buildings (Tower 101 and Rooms 105 and 106), other structures (Room 104 and Kivas 102, 107, and 108) contained appreciable quantities of de facto refuse (Database Photo 2985). The presence of a substantial amount of de facto refuse suggests either that these structures were not abandoned in a leisurely manner or that the occupants were embarking on a lengthy journey and could not take many of their possessions. Because so many usable items were left undisturbed, one might further infer that the abandonment of these structures occurred near the end of the occupation of the village and of the area, when there was little demand for additional material possessions.
The presence of artifacts in a layer of naturally deposited sediment that rested on the floors of Kivas 102 and 108 indicates that some activities occurred in these structures after initial abandonment; however, the exact nature of this reuse has not been determined for either structure. After this layer of sediment had been deposited on the floor of Kiva 102, the roof was burned. After similar sediment and some unburned roofing material came to rest on the floor of Kiva 108, a small portion of the roofing material was also burned.
Additional evidence of abandonment events was documented in the contexts in which human skeletal remains were found and in the condition of the remains. During excavations in Block 100, bones from at least four individuals were found in abandonment contextsa male 40 to 45 years old (HRO, or Human Remains Occurrence, 2), a female 18 to 20 years old (HRO 3), a male 12 to 15 years old (HRO 4a), and a female 17 to 26 years old (HRO 4b). In addition, the remains of a child 18 to 24 months old (HRO 1) were located in Midden 103 and might have been formally interred originally; however, pothunting in historic times had disturbed these remains, and the original interment type could not be determined. Bones from HROs 2, 3, 4a, and 4b were found in abandonment contexts in Kivas 102, 107, and 108, as well as in Rooms 105, 116, and 118. The results of osteological, taphonomic, and stratigraphic analyses lead to the inference that, about the time these structures and kiva suites were abandoned, there was a violent event in which people were killed (Bradley 2002*1; Kuckelman et al. 2002*2) and their bodies carelessly deposited (Kuckelman et al. 2002*2); also see the feature descriptions for these HROs in The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database).
Summary and Conclusions
The intensively excavated structures in Architectural Block 100 appear to have been constructed sometime after A.D. 1250. However, there are remnants of structures that predate Kiva 107; these structures could not be dated but nevertheless are inferred to have been constructed during the occupation of Sand Canyon Pueblo. The construction of both Tower 101 and the room that predated Kiva 107 appears to have been planned when the western portion of the associated site-enclosing wall was built. And, for an unknown period of time, the site-enclosing wall ended at the southeast corner of the tower (it is not known what other sections of site-enclosing wall existed in other areas of the village at that time). The construction of the other excavated buildings necessitated the addition of a new section of site-enclosing wall, and the new rooms and kivas were tacked onto existing structures in a general west-to-east progression. This new construction probably began in A.D. 1271 or 1274, although it is possible that it occurred before this and that the latest tree-ring dates indicate roof remodeling or repair (the A.D. 1274 dates are from pinyon pine; see paragraph 19). Formal hearths were found only in the kivas, although one shallow firepit was present in Tower 101 and another was found in a storage room (Room 104). This suggests that, if these suites were residential, then most cooking, winter activities requiring heat, and nighttime activities requiring light would have occurred in the kivas. A violent event that resulted in the careless deposition of human remains appears to have occurred about the time these structures were abandoned.
Crow Canyon's testing of Block 200 included the complete excavation of a structure that appears to have been a circular tower (Tower 212) that was remodeled into an aboveground kiva (Kiva 208), as well as six aboveground rooms interpreted as storage rooms (Rooms 202, 203, 204, 206, 207, and 211) and one aboveground room whose use could not be determined (Room 205) (Database Map 4055, Database Map 4001). In addition, portions of two extramural surfaces (Nonstructure 201 and Surface 1 in Nonstructure 209) and portions of two middens (Midden 210 and a layer of trash in Nonstructure 209) were excavated. Although only one kiva was excavated in this block, it is probable that not one, but two, kiva suites are represented within the group of excavated structures. The presence of doorways in the south walls of Rooms 205 and 206 suggests that these two structures were used by the residents of one or more unexcavated kiva suites adjacent to the south. Although the surface rooms observed in this block are quite tall, there is no firm evidence that any of the excavated structures contained two stories.
The excavated structures in Block 200 abut the inside, or southeast, face of the site-enclosing wall; in this area of the site, the wall is oriented northeast-southwest (Database Map 4006). Two apparent kiva depressions are visible just south of the excavated group of structures, and open space inferred to have been used as a plaza borders the group to the northeast, east, and southeast (Database Map 4003). One of only two openings that were exposed in the site-enclosing wall during excavations at the site was observed at the north edge of this group of excavated structures, which is also the north edge of the entire architectural block. At the time of excavation, this feature, which was designated a doorway, consisted of a gap in the wall (Nonstructure 201, Feature 1). It is not clear whether the opening was originally a full-height gap or whether it was a true doorway with continuous construction across the top. If the latter were true, it would indicate unbroken construction of the site-enclosing wall in this location. If, on the other hand, the opening was simply a full-height gap in the wall, then it is possible that this feature represents an actual construction break in the wall (a definite construction break that was not an opening was documented in the site-enclosing wall in Block 100; see paragraph 37 and paragraph 170) and that, for an unknown length of time, either the southwest or the northeast edge of this doorway formed a temporary terminus of the site-enclosing wall. After approximately 40 cm of sediment had been deposited naturally on the bedrock surface at the bottom of this opening, the width of the doorway was reduced substantially by the addition of masonry to the inside faces of both sides of the doorway (Database Map 4055). This remodeling might have been for the purpose of restricting access into the pueblo by outsiders (see also the discussion of the site-enclosing wall, paragraphs 165175). It is not known how many gaps or openings originally penetrated the site-enclosing wall as a whole but are now covered by sediment.
As with Block 100, the order in which the excavated structures in Block 200 were built could not be determined for certain. It is not clear whether the exposed section of the site-enclosing wall or Tower 212 was constructed first. If the site-enclosing wall was built first, then either Room 205 or Tower 212 was constructed second. As previously mentioned, there is a doorway in the south wall of Room 205 (Database Photo 3337). The presence of this doorway suggests that this room was associated with an unexcavated kiva suite to the south. Also, the northeast, southeast, and southwest walls of this room are tied, indicating that these walls were built in one construction episode and that the room predates the construction of Room 204. This suggests that an unexcavated kiva suite to the south might have been built before Kiva Suite 208. The tower could have been associated with the kiva suite to the south, or it might have been a defensive structure associated with the nearby opening (Nonstructure 201, Feature 1) through the site-enclosing wall, or both.
The available evidence indicates that Kiva 208 was constructed inside what was originally a tower (Tower 212), but it was not possible to determine when the kiva was constructed in relation to the construction of the other excavated structures in this block. Many of the exposed room walls abut, and therefore postdate, the tower walls; however, in only one place does construction specific to Kiva 208 contact a structure other than the tower. Characteristics of the walls of the southern recess of Kiva 208 suggest that Tower 212 was modified into a kiva after Room 211 was built (and so also after Rooms 205 and 206 were built). These characteristics include the asymmetrical shape of the southern recess, the irregular width of the interior wall that forms the southwest corner of the recess; and the probable abutting of the narrow, exterior south wall of the southern recess to the southeast corner of Room 211 (Database Map 4055). The odd shape of the southern recess is more likely to have been the result of accommodation to a space that was already formed by the southeast wall of Room 211 than to have been intentionally designed that way. In contrast, the southeast wall of Room 211 is of relatively uniform thickness, and this wall is tied to the southwest wall of the same room. These characteristics suggest that Room 211 was constructed before the tower was remodeled into a kiva. Wall abutments in Rooms 205, 206, and 211 indicate that Rooms 205 and 206 were built before Room 211; therefore, these two earlier rooms also would have been built before the kiva was constructed.
It is clear from wall abutments that Rooms 202, 203, 204, and 207 were built after both the site-enclosing wall and the tower. The construction of these four adjacent rooms might have occurred at roughly the same time that the tower was remodeled into a kiva, an event that would have replaced the tower with a kiva suite. In addition, the ties and abutments of the walls of Rooms 202 and 207 indicate that these two rooms were built as one structure that was then subdivided by the construction of a wall oriented northeast-southwest. The original, larger structure did not appear to have been used as a room before this dividing wall was built.
There are few tree-ring dates for the excavated structures in Block 200. Only four datable samples were found; two are from Room 204. These two samples are of pinyon pine and are suspect as construction timbers (see discussion of pinyon pine, paragraph 19). The samples were collected from the uppermost layer of fill in Room 204, and if this wood was, in fact, from the roof of Room 204, then the structure was either built or repaired sometime after A.D. 1267. If the samples were from the trash that was deposited on the collapsed roofing material, then the dates indicate only that trash was deposited in this room sometime after A.D. 1267.
Room 206 was built after both Tower 212 and Room 205 were constructed; a doorway in the south wall of this structure suggests that this room was associated with an unnumbered kiva adjacent to the south. Room 211 was tacked onto Room 206. There is no evidence to indicate with which kiva this room was associated. Two of the four tree-ring dates for Block 200 were obtained from samples collected from Kiva 208. One sample, dated A.D. 702vv, was found beneath the floor of Kiva 208 and, from the anomalously early date, appears to be from a reused or damaged beam. The other sample, which dated to A.D. 1244rB, was obtained from a fragment of pinyon fuelwood from a burned spot (Feature 34) on the surface of the southern recess and so cannot be used to infer the construction date of the kiva (contra Bradley 1992*2:84, 1993*1:34).
Associations Between Excavated Structures
Three doorways were found in the excavated group of rooms in Block 200. As previously mentioned, two of these were in the southwest walls of Rooms 205 and 206. These doorways suggest that the two rooms were used by the residents of one or more kiva suites adjacent to the south rather than by the inhabitants of Kiva Suite 208. The third doorway is an opening that had been broken neatly through the west wall of Tower 212 (Database Photo 3350). The fact that the doorway was broken through an existing wall, rather than being incorporated into the original wall construction, indicates that the doorway was created after the tower was built. Furthermore, its location well above the floor of Room 204 on the one side and slightly above the bench surface of Kiva 208 on the other side suggests that the doorway was created after the tower had been remodeled into a kiva. Thus, the existence, location, and construction mode of this doorway indicate that Room 204 and Kiva 208 were directly associated. The absence of doorways in the walls of Rooms 202, 203, 207, and 211 leads to the inference that these rooms were accessed through roof hatchways. Proximity suggests that Rooms 202, 203, and 207 were associated with Kiva 208. It is not clear whether Room 211 was associated with Kiva 208 or, like Rooms 205 and 206, with an unexcavated kiva adjacent to the south.
Some of the excavated structures in this block appear to have been abandoned before Kiva Suite 208 as a whole was abandoned. Refuse had been deposited in Rooms 202, 204, and 205 and, although the quantity of trash in these rooms was not great, the presence of refuse indicates that these rooms were abandoned while use of this area of the block continued. However, abundant de facto refuse was found in Kiva 208 (Database Photo 3735), and a moderate amount of this type of refuse was present in Room 203 (Database Photo 2948), suggesting that the suite as a whole was not abandoned until the occupation of the village ended. The presence of de facto refuse also suggests either that the abandonment of these structures was abrupt and unplanned or that the residents expected the move to be long distance.
None of the roofs in the excavated structures had been burned. Remnants of rotted beams were found in Kiva 208 and Rooms 203, 205, 206, and 211. This suggests that timbers from these structures had not been salvaged and supports the inference that these structures were abandoned about the same time that the occupation of the village ended. Room 205, which contained a small amount of refuse and some rotted beams, might have been abandoned only shortly before that time.
Human remains from abandonment contexts in the excavated structures in Block 200 consist of the following disarticulated bones and fragments: two finger bones from wall fall in Room 204; one hand bone found on or near the floor of Room 205; and a cervical vertebra, a cranial fragment, a hyoid, and 15 bones from right and left hands found on or near the floor and in the roof fall of Kiva 208. It is not clear how these bones came to be deposited in these locations.
Unusual structural damage, consisting of two large breaches in the site-enclosing wall, had occurred in the excavated portion of Block 200. One breach was in the northwest wall of Room 202 (Database Photo 2529); the other involved much of the portion of the site-enclosing wall that formed the northwest wall of Room 204 (Database Photo 3349). The damage is not typical of natural collapse, and it is also unlikely that the breaches were caused by natural forces such as a flash flood, because the topography in this area (Database Map 4006) would not have channeled water in the direction necessary to cause such extensive damage. The destruction was therefore apparently the work of humans. Although it is possible that a pothunter in historic times caused the damage, no disturbance to the fill of either room was noted during excavation. As mentioned previously, Rooms 202 and 204 also appeared to be the only two excavated structures in Kiva Suite 208 that fell into disuse before the suite was abandoned; it is not known if this circumstance is related to the observed wall damage.
Summary and Conclusions
There is little evidence to indicate when the excavated structures in Block 200 were built. Construction of the excavated structures appears to have generally proceeded from southwest to northeast, because the unnumbered kivas adjacent to the south of the excavated structures appear to predate the excavated structures. This follows the same west-to-east progression noted for the excavated structures in Block 100. The site-enclosing wall and Tower 212 were probably the earliest two structures to have been built in the area exposed by excavations. Although three rooms contained small amounts of secondary refuse, suggesting that they fell into disuse before Kiva Suite 208 as a whole was abandoned, the absence of secondary refuse in most structures, the amount of de facto refuse in some structures, and the presence of rotted roof timbers in the fills of several structures suggest that Kiva Suite 208 as a whole was abandoned when the occupation of the village ended.
In Architectural Block 300, researchers intensively excavated an aboveground kiva (Kiva 306), three aboveground rooms (Rooms 303, 304, and 307) interpreted as storage rooms, two aboveground rooms (Rooms 305 and 308) of indeterminate use, and four small kiva corner rooms (Rooms 309, 310, 311, and 312) (Database Map 4077). Poorly understood deposits (Nonstructure 314) found beneath the floor of Room 307, and possibly extending beneath adjacent structures as well (Database Map 4077), were sampled. Before excavation began, this architectural block appeared, on the basis of surface evidence, to contain numerous surface rooms but only one kiva, whose presence was indicated by a circular depression in the approximate northeast quadrant of the block (Database Map 4007). To learn more about what seemed to be an unusual block, Crow Canyon researchers selected for excavation a group of six adjacent structures located in the south-central portion of the block as defined (Database Map 4007). These structures initially appeared to be surface rooms, but as excavation progressed, one of the six was revealed to be a second kiva (Kiva 306) that had not been recognizable as a kiva on the modern ground surface. Thus, Block 300 contains a minimum of two kivas, and there may be additional kivas in the unexcavated areas of the block.
The east-west row of excavated structures (Kiva 306 and Rooms 304, 305, and 307) appears to span the full width of the architectural block. North and south of the excavated structures are what appear, from surface evidence, to be additional surface rooms. The distance from the excavated structures to the southern extent of the rubble of this architectural block suggests that an additional one to two rows of structures are present beneath the rubble in this area (Database Map 4007). The possible kiva depression described in the preceding paragraph is located several meters northeast of the excavated structures. West of the block is open space inferred to have been a plaza, and to the east, the ground surface slopes down to Block 400 (Database Map 4007).
Although there are no tree-ring dates for this architectural block, the general sequence in which the excavated structures were built was inferred on the basis of wall ties and abutments. Several abutments indicate that Rooms 305 and 307 and the unexcavated structure or structures immediately north of Kiva 306 were built before any of the other excavated structures (Database Map 4077). Thus, the unexcavated buildings northeast of the excavated structures (Database Map 4007) could predate the excavated structures, and construction of the architectural block might have proceeded generally from north to south.
The earliest cultural deposit in the excavated area appears to have been Nonstructure 314, which is refuse beneath the floor of Room 307. This refuse was probably also present beneath the floors of Kiva 306 and Rooms 309312, and possibly beneath the floor of Room 308. It was not determined whether this material was (1) refuse from unexcavated structures to the north that accumulated on bedrock before the excavated structures were built, (2) material associated with structures or an extramural use area that predated the excavated structures, or (3) refuse brought in as construction material in preparation for the construction of the excavated rooms. This refuse contained a variety of materials (chipped-stone debris, sherds, a core, modified sherds, nonhuman bone, eight complete peckingstones, a two-hand mano, and a bone tube) that could be interpreted to indicate residential use of this block (as opposed to storage; see paragraphs 186187).
Among the excavated structures, one of the first (and possibly the very first) to be built was Room 307 (Database Map 4077). The tying of the southeast and southwest corners indicates that this one room was tacked onto the wall of a structure to the north in one construction episode. Alternatively, the east and west walls of Room 305 and the unexcavated room immediately south of Room 305 could have been built first; the south wall of Room 305 was probably built during the same episode. It is probable that Kiva 306 was not built immediately after the construction of Rooms 305 and 307, because the southwest bench face of the kiva blocks a floor-level opening (Feature 4, pass-through) in the east wall of Room 305 (Database Map 4080). The space between these two rooms might have been left as a courtyard for a time or might have contained an earlier structure; no evidence of an earlier structure was documented in this area, however. The raised-sill doorway (Feature 3) in the east wall of Room 305 thus appears to have originally allowed access to this courtyard.
The next event could have been either the construction of Room 304 and the unexcavated room to the south or the construction of the west wall of Room 308 and the south enclosing wall of Kiva 306, which are tied. The construction of Room 304 began with the west wall and was completed by the construction of the north and south walls. Room 303, to the north, did not exist at this time. The construction of the west wall of Room 308 and the south enclosing wall of Kiva 306 defined a large, square space within which Kiva 306 and its corner rooms (Rooms 309312) were then constructed. The ventilation tunnel was part of the original construction of the south enclosing wall (Database Photo 2514), which indicates that the construction of that wall was part of the construction of Kiva 306. In addition, if the west wall of Room 308 continued unbroken to the south, past the southeast corner of Kiva 306, as shown on Database Map 4077, then an unexcavated structure immediately south of Kiva 306 was also constructed during this same event. The raised-sill doorway between Kiva 306 and Room 305 could have been blocked when the kiva was built or any time before or after that.
The wall that formed the east wall of both Room 308 and the unexcavated structure to the south was probably constructed next, followed by the south wall of Room 308. Room 303 could have been the last of the excavated structures to have been built. When this room was built, its east and south walls already existed as walls of other structures. In this construction episode, the wall that formed the west walls of Room 303 and the unexcavated room to the north was built first, and then the wall that separates these two rooms was constructed.
Associations Between Excavated Structures
It is not possible to determine which of the excavated structures were used in association with Kiva 306 and were therefore part of Kiva Suite 306, although the kiva corner rooms (Rooms 309312) are assumed to have been associated with the kiva. Also, proximity suggests that the rectangular rooms adjacent to the kiva (that is, Rooms 305, 307, and 308) probably were associated with that structure. The presence of a doorway in the south wall of Room 305 suggests that the unexcavated room south of Room 305 was also part of this kiva suite. Although it is possible that Room 304, too, was in this suite, the distance between it and the kiva suggests that association with a different suite is just as likely.
Only two doorways were noted in the walls of excavated structures in Block 300; however, not all the walls in this group of structures were preserved to a height that would allow researchers to confidently conclude that no additional raised-sill doorways existed originally. Nonetheless, it is probable that Rooms 303, 304, 307, and 308 were accessed via roof hatchways. Kiva 306 was also probably entered through a hatchway but, at least for a time, might have been entered through the raised-sill doorway in its west wall as well (Database Map 4077). Although it is likely that this doorway originally opened from Room 305 onto a courtyard that predated Kiva 306, it could have continued in use after the kiva was constructed, providing mutual access between the kiva and the room (it is not known when the doorway was blocked in relation to the construction of the kiva). The doorway in the south wall of Room 305, which also has a raised sill, indicates that this room and the unexcavated room to the south were associated. The presence of this doorway suggests that there is at least one structure in Kiva Suite 306 that was not excavated.
Five lines of evidence suggest that the excavated structures in Block 300 were abandoned while other parts of the village continued to be occupied. First, culturally deposited refuse, though sparse, was found in the collapsed roofing material in Room 305, suggesting that people were living in one or more structures in this portion of Block 300 after the roof of this room collapsed. Second, the partial, fragmentary remains of a child two to three years old (HRO 32) were found in the same collapsed roofing material. It was not possible to determine the circumstances surrounding the deposition of these remains, although the remains apparently came to rest in the room after the roof had partly or completely collapsed. Third, roofing materials appear to have been removed from Kiva 306 (including its corner rooms) and from Rooms 303, 304, and 307, presumably for reuse elsewhere in the village. Fourth, although a moderate number of usable items were found on the floor of Kiva 306 (Database Photo 2520) (which could indicate hurried or catastrophic abandonment of the structure), the northwest and northeast masonry bench faces appear to have been largely dismantled (Database Photo 2526), again presumably so that the materials could be reused in some other construction. Fifth, it is probable that other structure walls exposed during excavation were robbed of stones for reusethe walls of the excavated structures in this block are, in general, shorter than the walls exposed in other architectural blocks (Database Photo 2666).
Summary and Conclusions
Because there are no tree-ring dates for the excavated portion of Block 300, the structures are poorly dated. However, the masonry style observed in the excavated structures suggests that the block was built during the same occupation as the other blocks investigated at the site. Also, there is no evidence in the pottery assemblage from this block to indicate occupation during a time other than that determined for the tree-ring-dated blocks at the site (that is, the midA.D. 1200s). Wall ties and abutments in the portion excavated suggest that the block was constructed during multiple episodes in a generally north-to-south progression. It is not known whether all the structures that were excavated in Block 300 were in Kiva Suite 306; however, the doorway in the south wall of Room 305 does indicate that at least one of the rooms in Kiva Suite 306 was not excavated.
Several construction details observed in the excavated portion of Block 300 are unusual. The long axes of the excavated rooms are oriented north-south, rather than east-west. This orientation is probably not related to the orientation of the site-enclosing wall, because this block is not attached to that wall. Also, the construction style of Kiva 306 is much less formal than that documented for other excavated kivas at this site: the bench face, where preserved, is discontinuous (Database Map 4081); there are no pilasters, formal bench surfaces, or southern recess; and the "corner rooms" are much smaller both horizontally and vertically than the corner rooms of other kivas.
It is unknown whether Kiva Suite 306 was functionally comparable to other kiva suites in the village. However, there is some evidence to suggest that the structures in the excavated portion of the block were used in much the same ways as structures in other blocks in the village. Kiva 306, for example, might well have been used for the same purposes as other ordinary-size kivasdespite its relatively informal construction style, its floor features and assemblages are similar to those documented in other excavated kivas at the site (see Kiva 306 in The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database). Even though this structure was built within a space defined by existing surface rooms, there are no data to indicate that it was not the original building to occupy this space, although the space might have been used as a courtyard before the kiva was constructed.
The excavated structures in Block 300 appear to have been abandoned while other parts of the village were still inhabited. It was not possible to determine whether the deposition of the human remains (HRO 32) in the collapsed roofing material of Room 305 coincided with the end of the occupation of the village or predated that event.
Crow Canyon's testing of Block 500 included the complete excavation of one circular, subterranean kiva (Kiva 501), one surface room (Room 503) inferred to have been used as a mealing room, six rooms that appeared to have been used for storage (Room 504, 507, 508, 510, 511, and 512), two surface rooms for which no use could be determined (Rooms 505 and 506), one subterranean room for which no use could be determined (Room 514), and a courtyard surface (Courtyard 513) (Database Map 4087, Database Map 4001). Also, portions of two middens (Middens 515 and 518) were sampled (Database Map 4087), and a kiva of unknown type (Kiva 517) was tested (Database Map 4009). Midden 515 is located adjacent to the retaining wall at the south edge of the courtyard and appears to be associated with Kiva Suite 501; Midden 518, however, is beneath the floor of Room 512 and could have been associated with an unexcavated kiva suite to the northeast. In addition, small segments of two other walls were exposed in a 2-x-2-m probability test unit (905N 966E) 13 m southwest of Kiva Suite 501, near the southwest edge of Block 500 (Database Map 4009). One of these, oriented northwest-southeast, appeared to be part of a retaining wall. The other was oriented northeast-southwest and had characteristics that are typical of walls of surface rooms. Nothing more is known about these walls.
In Block 500, the intensively excavated structures are several meters east of the inferred location of the site-enclosing wall (Database Map 4009); it therefore is not known if or how the block as a whole related to the wall. East and west of the excavated group of structures are additional structures within this architectural block. Immediately north is a small area of rubble from undefined rooms, and beyond that is the southwest end of an open area inferred to have been a plaza, which is between this block and Block 200. To the south is a small area of open space, and south of that is Block 800, which contains a great kiva.
Although no tree-ring dates are available for any of the excavated surface rooms in Kiva Suite 501, there are numerous tree-ring dates for Kiva 501; these dates suggest that the kiva was constructed about A.D. 1252. The chronological relationship between the construction of Kiva 501 and the building of the various surface rooms, however, is not clear (see paragraphs 8384). In addition, tree-ring samples dating from A.D. 1271+v and 1271+B were collected from the probability unit (905N 966E) at the southwest edge of the architectural block (see paragraph 75). These samples came from a layer inferred to have been intentional construction fill and were beneath strata of culturally deposited refuse. The origin of these samples is thus unknownthe species is pinyon pine, and so the wood might have been from roofing material or might have been fuelwood (see paragraph 19). In either case, the location of these samples indicates that occupation of this architectural block continued until sometime after A.D. 1271.
The ties and abutments of walls indicate that the first construction related to the surface rooms in this kiva suite was a large, irregularly shaped, northeast-southwest-trending structure that was then subdivided into Rooms 503 and 504. The presence of doorways in the east walls of both rooms (Database Map 4087) strongly suggests that the original construction was never intended to be used as one room, but that the dividing wall between the two rooms was part of the original design.
After these rooms were constructed, a large structure oriented east-west was built to the northeast. A short wall stub that was tied to the southwest corner of this new structure abutted the northeast corner of Room 503. The new structure was subdivided, probably immediately, into Rooms 510 and 511. During the next construction episode, a similar pair of rooms was built; the walls of these rooms abutted the south faces of Rooms 510 and 511, as well as the east wall of Room 503. This structure was subdivided, probably immediately, into Rooms 507 and 508. The presence of a small amount of refuse and a firepit (Feature 2) on an earlier surface beneath the floor of Room 508 suggests that at least a short time elapsed between the construction of Rooms 510 and 511, and Rooms 507 and 508.
A large room was then abutted to the southeast corner of Room 511. This was subdivided into Rooms 505 and 506. As with Room 508, a small amount of refuse was found beneath the floor of Room 506, again suggesting that at least a short time passed after the construction of Rooms 507 and 508 before Rooms 505 and 506 were built. Also, it is possible that, unlike the rooms previously constructed, this large room was used for a while before it was subdivided. Evidence of this is a second constructed floor that is above the bases of the walls in Room 505. A firepit (Feature 1) (Database Map 4087) is associated with this upper floor.
After Rooms 511, 505, and 506 were built, trash was deposited for an unknown length of time in the space east of Room 511 and north of Rooms 505 and 506. This refuse deposit was approximately 55 cm thick, and it contained ash and other burned organic materials, which probably originated from a hearth in the unexcavated kiva east of this space or from the firepit (Feature 1) in Room 505. Later, Room 512 was constructed on top of this layer of trash. The walls of this room, the last of the surface structures to be built in Kiva Suite 501, abut Room 511 on the west, Room 505 on the south, and an unexcavated kiva to the northeast.
It is not possible, with the data available, to determine exactly when in the construction sequence Kiva 501 and Room 514 (a subterranean room) were built. The massive retaining wall that defines the courtyard on the southwest, south, and east (see Database Map 4087) was probably constructed to enable the residents to build these two structures and Courtyard 513. The natural sediment depth in the area of the uphill (northern) portion of the kiva was great enough that this part of the kiva could be naturally subterranean, but the east and south walls of the kiva could not have been built below the ground until the ground surface was artificially raised in those areas. The raising of this surface was effected by the construction of the retaining wall and the deliberate placement of fill against the uphill (northwest) face of the wall. The fill that was used to build up the prehistoric ground surface to create the area of Courtyard 513 northeast of Kiva 501 contains a layer of white clay inferred to have originated from the pit excavated prehistorically to construct Kiva 501. Thus, it appears that the courtyard and the kiva were constructed at the same time, with the courtyard being leveled with sediment from the kiva depression.
The retaining wall (and so also Kiva 501, Room 514, and Courtyard 513) was built either at the same time as, or after, Rooms 503 and 504 (Database Map 4087). However, the other end of this retaining wall, in the area of Room 505, was not well defined during excavation, and the outside (east) faces of the retaining wall and the east wall of Room 505 were not observed. It is thus not clear whether this end of the retaining wall abuts the southeast corner of that room (postdating the room) or whether the retaining wall runs parallel to, and outside of, the east wall of the room (probably predating it). If the retaining wall does not abut the corner of Room 505, it probably abuts the wall of the unexcavated kiva east of Room 512, in which case the east wall of Room 505 was probably built inside of, and parallel to, this wall. If this scenario is correct, then the massive retaining wall, and so Kiva 501, could have been built any time after Room 504 was constructed. If, on the other hand, this retaining wall abuts the southeast corner of Room 505, then the kiva would have been one of the last structures built in this suite.
One other scenario is possible, however. In addition to the massive retaining wall, another, shorter section of retaining wall is adjacent to the south wall of the southern recess of the kiva (Database Map 4087). In field documentation (field map no. 2), this wall is labeled "Kiva Upper Retaining Wall." This wall was not well defined, and it is not clear how it relates physically or chronologically to the more massive retaining wall. However, it is possible that this section of retaining wall was associated with the construction of Kiva 501 and that the massive wall around the entire courtyard was not constructed until sometime later. If this scenario is correct, then it is not possible to determine when the kiva was built in relation to any other structure in this suite. Likewise, Room 514 could have been built any time after the necessary retaining wall was built, although it is not known which of the two retaining walls helped to create the necessary sediment depth for the construction of this subterranean room.
Because no tree-ring dates are associated with Kiva 517 (the tested kiva located due east of Kiva Suite 501), little is known about its date of construction. However, there is no evidence to suggest that this kiva was not built, occupied, and abandoned during the inferred occupation span of the village.
Associations Between Excavated Structures
Only one kiva (Kiva 501) was intensively excavated in this block, and the proximity of the rooms to the kiva, the locations of the room doorways observed, and the shape and orientation of the rooms suggest that all the intensively excavated structures were part of Kiva Suite 501. Direct evidence that structures belonged to Kiva Suite 501 consists of exterior doorways in Rooms 503, 504, 506, and 508 that open onto Courtyard 513. Also, unless Rooms 507 and 508 were built in the same construction episode as Rooms 510 and 511 (Database Map 4087), the doorway in the south wall of Room 511 would have originally opened onto the courtyard as well. No exterior doorways were observed in walls that did not front Courtyard 513, although some walls (such as those of Room 505) had collapsed to such an extent that any evidence of raised-sill doorways could have been destroyed.
Three interior doorways, or doorways between rooms, were found between Rooms 503 and 504, between Rooms 506 and 507, and between Rooms 507 and 511, suggesting relationships or spatial organization within the kiva suite. The doorway in the dividing wall between Rooms 503 and 504 originally allowed mutual access between these two rooms, although the blocking of this doorway sometime during the occupation of the suite indicates a change in access between, and suggests a change in the use of, these two rooms. The doorway between Rooms 507 and 511 was an interior doorway only after Room 507 was built in front of Room 511, but the fact that the doorway was never blocked indicates that access between the two rooms was desired. No doorways were found in the walls of Rooms 505, 510, or 512. The walls of Room 510 are preserved to a great enough height that it is unlikely that a doorway was present in any of those walls; entry was thus probably through a roof hatchway. The south and west walls of Room 505 and the south wall of Room 512 are so poorly preserved that it is possible that a doorway originally existed in one or more of these walls.
Most structures in Kiva Suite 501 appear to have been abandoned simultaneously. Evidence of this is the near-absence of refuse in the fill of the structures. Only Room 511 contained unmistakable secondary refuse; lenses of trash were found in fallen wall debris in this room. It is also possible that some refuse was discarded into collapsed roofing material in Room 512. However, this refuse could have accumulated on the structure roof during the use of the room, then entered the room naturally as the roof collapsed. The presence of a substantial amount of de facto refuse on the floors of several structures and on the surface of the courtyard suggests that the abandonment of the suite coincided with the end of village occupation.
The roof of only one structure in this kiva suite, Kiva 501, was burned. This burning was unlike most other structural burning at the site because it involved both large-diameter and small-diameter roof timbers and the collapsed roofing material rested directly on the kiva floor. The location of the roofing material on the floor indicates that the roof was burned at, rather than sometime after, structure abandonment.
One articulated skeleton and a few disarticulated bones were found in abandonment contexts in this kiva suite. The skeletonthe mostly complete, mostly articulated, and burned remains of a woman 45 to 50 years of age (HRO 14)was found in collapsed, burned roofing material (see Structure 501, Feature 29, in The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database). The circumstances of deposition are not clear, but among ancestral Pueblo people, human remains typically were not burned. Other human remains found in abandonment contexts in Kiva Suite 501 consist of the following: a patella in the collapsed roofing material of Room 503, a phalanx and a mandible fragment in a layer of collapsed wall and roofing material on the floor of Room 504, a metatarsal fragment in collapsed wall debris in Room 511, and an ulna fragment in a layer of collapsed wall and roofing material in Room 514. It is not known how these remains came to be deposited in these locations.
Summary and Conclusions
The intensively excavated structures in Architectural Block 500 appear to have formed one complete kiva suite (Kiva Suite 501) that was constructed about A.D. 1252; a second kiva suite is represented by an undated kiva (Kiva 517) that was tested with a 1-x-2-m pit. Tree-ring dates yielded by samples collected from the southwest edge of the architectural block indicate that occupation of the block continued after A.D. 1271. Other than the four layers of plaster on the kiva walls, the suite contains little evidence of remodeling.
Several other aspects of Kiva Suite 501 are also worthy of note. Wall abutments and ties indicate that the surface rooms in the suite were constructed in a generally southwest-to-northeast progression. The presence of a floor-level doorway and a firepit (Feature 8) beneath a metate bin in Room 503 suggests the possibility that, when Rooms 503 and 504 were built, the former was used for habitation. That the surface rooms were built in fairly rapid succession is suggested by the absence of a leveled courtyard surface beneath the rooms; however, a "burned spot" (Feature 2) was found on unleveled prehistoric ground surface beneath the floor of Room 508 (Database Map 4108), indicating some use of that area before the room was constructed.
The only formal hearth in the kiva suite was in Kiva 501, indicating that most cooking, winter activities requiring heat, and nighttime activities requiring light occurred in the kiva. Kiva 501 is unusual at this site in that it is subterranean and therefore has no corner rooms. It is possible that subterranean Room 514 served a function similar to that of corner rooms associated with aboveground kivas (Bradley 1992*2:86).
Several lines of evidence indicate that the abandonment of Kiva Suite 501 coincided with the end of village occupation, although it was not possible to determine whether the latter was associated with the deposition of the human remains in abandonment contexts.
No structures in Block 800 were completely excavated. Crow Canyon's investigations consisted of the partial excavation of the following: one great kiva (Great Kiva 800); two ordinary-size, aboveground kivas (Kivas 808 and 815); one mealing room (Room 814); one extramural surface (Nonstructure 802); a refuse deposit (Midden 803); and eight surface rooms (Rooms 805, 806, 807, 809, 810, 811, 812, and 813) that partly encircle the great kiva and are inferred to have been associated with that structure (Database Map 4281, Database Map 4001). It is not known whether there are additional encircling rooms in the untested areas northeast, east, southeast, and south of the great kiva (but see paragraph 99).
East of the excavated structures is a cliff. Architectural Block 600 lies to the northeast, Block 500 is to the north, and to the west is open space. The site-enclosing wall is believed to be a few meters southwest of the tested structures and, in this area, is oriented northwest-southeast (Database Map 4001). Some Block 800 structures may abut this wall, but no excavations were conducted in the areas adjacent to the wall. According to the definition of a kiva suite (see paragraph 2), two suites are represented by the two ordinary-size kivas that were tested in Block 800; the presence of the great kiva is not used to infer the existence of a third kiva suite, because this structure is interpreted as public architecture. All buildings tested were aboveground structures. Rooms 805, 809, and 810 were tall, with more than 2 m of wall height preserved, but definitive evidence that they contained two stories is lacking.
Because no structures in this block were completely excavatedand some of the evidence yielded by partial excavation is ambiguousless is known about the construction sequence within this block than that of most other blocks investigated by Crow Canyon. Nonetheless, some general inferences are supported. Wall abutments indicate that Great Kiva 800 was built first (Database Map 4281). Construction of this kiva began with the building of a circular, massive-walled enclosure that rested primarily on bedrock. Most of the stones in the outside face of this wall were shaped, suggesting that the builders expected this face to be exposed (Lipe and Varien 1999*1:318319). A low, masonry bench was constructed against the inside face of the lower portion of this wall, and the upper portion served as the upper lining wall. The massive wall that enclosed the kiva is hereafter referred to as the "great-kiva wall." The care that went into the preparation of the outside face of this wall suggests that, when the great kiva was built, there were no plans to construct the rooms that later encircled the kiva.
Encircling rooms similar to those associated with Great Kiva 800 have been found with other great kivas and have been referred to variously as "arc-shaped chambers" (Morris 1921*1:122), "peripheral chambers" (Morris 1921*1:121), and "peripheral rooms" (Martin 1936*1:5153; McLellan 1969*1; Vivian and Reiter 1965*1:9495). Following the majority, we will refer to the rooms that encircle Great Kiva 800 as "peripheral rooms" throughout the remainder of this chapter. Rooms 805807 and Rooms 809813 are peripheral rooms.
Wall ties and abutments indicate that Rooms 805 and 810 were the first of the excavated structures in Block 800 to be built after the great kiva. The raised-sill doorway in the northeast wall of Room 805 would have been an exterior doorway when the room was constructed. The unnumbered room adjacent to, and south of, Room 810 could have been added any time after that. This room was later subdivided, and Room 811 was one of the rooms created by the subdivision. Room 812 could have been built at the same time as Room 811, or it could have been added in a separate construction episode. The abutment of the southeast wall of Room 812 to the southwest wall of the same structure suggests that Room 812 and another room adjacent to the east were built simultaneously, then the cross wall was added. An untested depression that might indicate the presence of another room was noted in this area east of Room 812 (Database Map 4281).
There are some inconsistencies in the documentation of the walls in the vicinity of the southwest corner of Room 809 (Database Map 4302); however, the following is a "best guess" of the construction sequence of the structures in this part of the complex. The southwest wall of Room 814 abuts the west wall of Room 805. Also, a more-or-less north-south wall that presumably is the east wall of Room 814 (a mealing room) abuts the north corner of Room 805 (Database Photo 2442). These abutments demonstrate that Room 814 was built after Room 805. Furthermore, the northwest wall of Room 809 abuts the east face of the east wall of Room 814, indicating that Room 809 was built after Room 814.
Other aspects of the construction sequence in this block are less clear. In a construction episode that could have occurred any time after Room 814 was built, portions of the south and west walls and floor of Room 814 were removed as part of the construction of Kiva 808. Thus, Kiva 808 was built after Rooms 805, 810, and 814, but the chronological relationship between this kiva and the other peripheral rooms is unknown. The continuous outer walls of, and the abutted dividing walls between, Rooms 809, 813, and 807 suggest that these three rooms were built in a single construction episode. Sometime after Room 807 was constructed, Room 806 (if this space was actually an enclosed room rather than an outdoor work space) was built. A wall (Feature 1) on an extramural surface (Nonstructure 802) was also constructed after Room 807 was built. This feature was either an isolated wall or was part of a structure that has been mostly destroyed by erosion.
A few tree-ring dates are available for the abovementioned structures; however, there are no tree-ring dates for Great Kiva 800, which is inferred to have been the earliest structure built. Tree-ring dates for Kiva 808 suggest that this building was constructed in A.D. 1257. Because Kiva 808 abuts a peripheral room (Room 805) and also postdates Room 814, a pre-1257 construction date is suggested for Room 814, Room 805, Room 810, and the great kiva as well. However, a tree-ring sample from the lower fill of Room 814 yielded a date of A.D. 1276vv. It was not possible to determine the origin of this sample, but any of the following scenarios is possible: (1) The wood was from the roof of Room 814, so the room was built (or repaired) sometime after A.D. 1276, and Kiva 808 was built later still. (2) The wood was from the roof of Kiva 808, and it was the kiva that was built or repaired sometime after 1276. Room 814 was built sometime before that, and the great kiva and Room 805 were built earlier still. (3) The sample came from an unidentified structure or feature and indicates only that this area of the village was still occupied until sometime after A.D. 1276. Complicating the issue even further is the fact that the sample is pinyon pine and is suspect as a construction material at this site (see paragraph 19).
Given that the dating evidence from the site as a whole suggests that the village ceased to be inhabited by about A.D. 1280, it seems unlikely that Room 814 was constructed after A.D. 1276, because the intervening span does not appear to have been long enough to accommodate all the events that are known to have taken place after the room was built: the room was used for an unknown length of time, then its bins were dismantled, and Kiva 808 was constructed, occupied, vacated, partly dismantled, and burned. If all these events occurred after 1276, the village would probably have been occupied until at least the late A.D. 1280s. Although this scenario is possible, it is more likely that the A.D. 1276 tree-ring date reflects the construction or repair of Kiva 808. This interpretation would be more consistent with a 1280 date for the end of village occupation and the depopulation of the region.
A few additional tree-ring dates are available for other tested structures in Block 800. The construction of Kiva 815 was tree-ring dated to A.D. 1269 (see stem-and-leaf plot), but it is not possible to determine exactly when this kiva was built in relation to the other excavated structures in the block, because it does not contact any of the other structures (Database Map 4281). A noncutting date of A.D. 1267vv was derived from a pinyon pine sample found in Room 813 (see paragraph 19 for a discussion of the interpretation of pinyon tree-ring samples). If this sample was, in fact, from the roof of Room 813, then this room and possibly Rooms 807 and 809 were built or repaired an unknown length of time after 1267. A different pinyon pine sample yielded a date of A.D. 1273vv for Room 812; if this sample was from a construction timber, then this peripheral room was built (or repaired) sometime after that year. If the sample was not from the roof, the date indicates only that Block 800 continued to be used until after 1273. This dating of a peripheral room to relatively late in the occupation of the village could be interpreted to indicate that the A.D. 1276 date accurately reflects the time of construction of Room 814 or Kiva 808.
Associations Between Excavated Structures
There is less direct evidence of associations between tested structures in Block 800 than in other excavated areas of the site. It is likely that the peripheral rooms were associated with the great kiva in some way, but because there is little evidence of how these rooms were used, it is difficult to characterize that association. It is also not known for certain whether any of the peripheral rooms had doorway-type access into the great kiva, but no evidence of doorways was found in the portions of the great-kiva wall that were observed during testing.
Only one doorway links peripheral roomsa raised-sill doorway between Rooms 805 and 809. It appears that this was originally an exterior doorway and became a doorway linking Rooms 805 and 809 only after the latter building was constructed. There are no doorways between Rooms 806 and 807, 810 and 811, 811 and 812, or 809 and 813 (Database Map 4281). In addition, although excavations confirmed that Room 805 did not have a doorway in its west (or exterior) wall, and no exterior doorways were exposed during testing in other peripheral rooms, it is unknown whether such doorways are present in the sections of walls that were not observed.
Evidence suggests that some of the structures tested in Block 800 were abandoned while other parts of the village continued to be occupied. In general, relatively small quantities of de facto refuse were found in the portions of structures that were tested, and this may indicate that most objects that might have been stored or used in these buildings were removed during a leisurely abandonment of these structures. In Room 805, an area of in situ burning was found below collapsed roofing material on naturally deposited sediment that rested on the floor; this is evidence that occupation of the village continued after this room was abandoned or no longer maintained. No collapsed roofing material was found in Rooms 806 and 807, which indicates that the roof beams and sediment were removed when, or sometime after, these rooms were abandoned. Room 814 appears to have been abandoned and its metate bins dismantled when Kiva 808 was built. After the kiva was abandoned, some sections of the bench-face masonry were dismantled and the roof was burned. Evidence also indicates that small portions of the roofs of Rooms 812 and 813 might have been burned.
Only one structurethe great kivacontained secondary refuse. A shallow deposit of ashy refuse was found on the floor in Segment 2 of this structure (Database Map 4281). The refuse contained a variety of artifacts typically found in domestic trash. It is not possible to determine how much refuse might be present in unexcavated areas of the kiva, or whether the refuse was generated by activities in this kiva or by activities that took place elsewhere. However, the presence of refuse suggests that other parts of the block continued to be inhabited after the great kiva was no longer used for its original purpose.
Three concentrations of human bones and several scattered bones were found in abandonment contexts in Block 800. The remains of a man (HRO 24) were deposited just above the floor in unburned roofing material in Room 813. These remains were disarticulated and all the leg bones had been fractured about the time of death. The remains of another person, an adolescent 16 to 18 years of age (HRO 28), were found on or near the floor of Kiva 815 and appeared to have been carelessly deposited. Either at the same time the remains were deposited or a short time later, the kiva roof was burned. Most scattered human remains found in this block in abandonment contexts were located in Great Kiva 800; these remains consist of the humerus of an infant or child and fragments of a cranium, an ilium, and a femur. In addition, a patella was found in Room 809. The circumstances surrounding the death and disposition of the man in Room 813 and the adolescent in Kiva 815, as well as of the other remains found in abandonment contexts, are not known, but they could have been related to events surrounding the end of the occupation of the village (see paragraphs 194197).
Summary and Conclusions
Architectural Block 800 was tested by the partial excavation of 12 structures, including one great kiva and two ordinary-size kivas. Few tree-ring dates are available for the great kiva or peripheral rooms. There are only two cutting dates for the contiguous, excavated structures in this complexboth dates are A.D. 1257, both are from juniper samples, and both were collected from Kiva 808. The most straightforward interpretation of these dates is that Kiva 808 was built in A.D. 1257; wall ties and abutments indicate that therefore Great Kiva 800 and Rooms 805, 810, and 814 were constructed before A.D. 1257. Other peripheral rooms were added to the northwest, north, and southwest sides of the great kiva. Their respective construction dates are difficult to estimate from the available tree-ring dates, but these rooms could have been built during the late 1260s and early 1270s; they seem to have been added piecemeal over time and do not appear to have been planned when the great kiva was constructed. There was less direct access (that is, there are fewer doorways) between the peripheral rooms themselves than one might expectand substantially less access than between the arc-shaped rooms in the D-shaped block (Block 1500). No hearths were exposed during testing, and the only firepits observed were in the great kiva and in Room 812. The presence of a firepit in Room 812 indicates food preparation, or a need for heat or light, or both. This structure might have been constructed late in the use of this block (A.D. 1273) and therefore might not reflect the original or typical use of the peripheral rooms.
Some of the structures tested in this block were abandoned before the occupation of the village ended; the abandonment of others appears to have coincided with that event. There is some evidence to indicate that the great kiva was abandoned while other parts of the village continued to be occupied. In addition, the absence of collapsed roofing material in the fill of that structure suggests that, if the structure was ever roofed, its roof was removed at some point. Use of the structure could have continued after the roof was removed, or the roof could have been removed during or after structure abandonment. Also, it is possible that the deposition of human remains (HRO 24 in Room 813, HRO 28 in Kiva 815, and the scattered remains found in abandonment contexts) was related to events that ended the occupation of the village. The latest tree-ring dates from this block indicate that this area of the village was still occupied or used until sometime after A.D. 1276.
Crow Canyon's testing of Architectural Block 1000 included the complete excavation of several structures and surfaces, as well as the sampling of additional structures and deposits. The following structures were completely excavated: one circular, aboveground kiva (Kiva 1004); two kiva corner rooms (Rooms 1017 and 1018) inferred to have been used for storage; a two-story, D-shaped tower (Tower 1019/1008); two courtyards (Courtyards 1000 and 1016); two surface rooms (Rooms 1002 and 1005) inferred to have been living rooms; one surface room (Room 1006) inferred to have been used for storage; and three surface rooms (Rooms 1001, 1003, and 1007) for which no use could be determined (Database Map 4121, Database Map 4001). In Nonstructure 1009, portions of a midden and extramural surface were excavated; these were located adjacent to the northeast wall of Tower 1019/1008. In addition, test excavations were conducted in three other kivas in this blockKivas 1010 (Database Map 4014), 1012, and 1013although the limited nature of the testing did not allow an assessment of whether these were aboveground or subterranean structures. The three tested kivas and one completely excavated kiva represent a total of four kiva suites that are known to have been sampled during Crow Canyon's investigations; in addition, a fifth suite might be represented by one of the excavated surface rooms (see the following paragraph).
All the completely excavated structures are located in Kiva Suite 1004, and it appears that they represent a full, or nearly full, suite. Only two unexcavated structures might also have been part of this suite: (1) a possible D-shaped tower adjacent to, and southeast of, Tower 1019/1008 and (2) a possible structure southwest of Room 1018, the presence of which is suggested by a doorway that was knocked through the southwest wall of Room 1018 (Database Photo 1894). Also, it is possible that Room 1001 was used, not by the residents of Kiva Suite 1004, but by the residents of the unexcavated kiva suite immediately to the northwest, especially after the doorway between Rooms 1001 and 1002 was blocked (Database Map 4121, Database Photo 1923). There is no direct evidence to indicate that any building except Tower 1019/1008 was more than one story tall (see paragraph 13 for the criteria used to designate multiple stories).
Most of the excavated structures in Block 1000 abut the inside, or southwest, face of the site-enclosing wall; however, the D-shaped tower (Tower 1019/1008) is outside this wall and abuts its northeast face (Database Map 4121). In this area of the site, the site-enclosing wall is oriented northwest-southeast. What appears to be another D-shaped tower is adjacent to Tower 1019/1008 to the southeast; this tower was not excavated. There might be a few additional surface rooms just west of Kiva Suite 1004. At least one additional kiva and multiple surface rooms lie to the north-northwest, and many kivas and rooms within this architectural block lie to the south-southeast.
It is probable that the first construction in Kiva Suite 1004 was the site-enclosing wall. However, it was not possible to ascertain from which direction the construction of this section of the wall proceeded. Three small openings called loopholes (see the definitions of feature types in the field manual) perforate the site-enclosing wall in this area (Database Map 4121). The loopholes, which are clustered together and oriented at different angles, were incorporated into the original construction of this section of the wall. It is clear that Tower 1019/1008 was built in a separate construction episode, because its walls abut the site-enclosing wall. Although it is possible that the loopholes were designed to open into the tower, it seems more likely that their original purpose was to enable someone from inside the site-enclosing wall to view slightly different areas of the landscape outside the wall before the tower was built. Further, the doorway through the site-enclosing wall that provided access between the tower and Courtyard 1000 was not constructed when the enclosing wall was built but, rather, was knocked through this wall later (Database Photo 1941). These lines of evidence indicate that not only was the tower not constructed immediately after this section of the site-enclosing wall, but its construction was not even planned when the wall was built.
It is not possible to determine at what point during the construction of this kiva suite Room 1005 was built. Wall abutments indicate only that this room was built after the site-enclosing wall and before Rooms 1006 and 1007 (Database Map 4121). Tree-ring dates considered in concert with stratigraphic data demonstrate that Room 1005 was built sometime after A.D. 1266.
The enclosing wall around Kiva 1004 (including Room 1003, which is tied to this wall) was constructed early in the history of the suite. However, an unexcavated structure to the southwest existed before this wall was built, and the presence of a doorway between that structure and a corner room (Room 1018) associated with Kiva 1004 suggests some association between that unexcavated structure and Kiva Suite 1004. During the Kiva 1004 construction episode, the kiva itself, two corner rooms (Rooms 1017 and 1018), Courtyard 1016, Room 1003, and the walls that enclose the kiva on all sides except the southwest were built. Many tree-ring dates are available for Kiva 1004, and they indicate that this structure was built in either A.D. 1264 or 1266.
No tree-ring dates are available for Rooms 1001 and 1002. However, two lines of evidence suggest that Rooms 1001 and 1002 were planned when Room 1003 was built. First, the space that was left between the northeast wall of Room 1003 and the site-enclosing wall (where Rooms 1001 and 1002 were eventually built) was about the right size to accommodate the width of a room. Second, the generally parallel orientation of these same two walls created a space that lent itself to the construction of rectangular surface rooms. It is likely, therefore, that Rooms 1001 and 1002 were built immediately after Room 1003, or a short time later.
The D-shaped tower (Tower 1019/1008) appears to have been more than one story tall, but the lower story (Structure 1008) was not full height. The beams that supported the floor of the upper story ranged from 1.20 m to 1.54 m above the floor of the lower story; the original height of the upper story is not known. This building was probably constructed about the same time as Room 1002. Before these two buildings were constructed, the three loopholes through the site-enclosing wall would have afforded views of three areas of the landscape outside the wall (see paragraph 115). With the construction of the tower, from which one would have had a much wider and more complete view of the surrounding landscape than through the loopholes, the need for the viewing holes would have been eliminated. Because the two northern loopholes were rendered unusable by construction associated with Room 1002 (Database Map 4146), and because there is some evidence of a doorway in the southwest wall of the second story of the tower (Structure 1019; see Database Map 4158) that would have provided access between that structure and the roof of Room 1002, it is inferred that the tower (Tower 1019/1008) was probably built about the same time as Room 1002. The existing height of the site-enclosing wall across the site in general and the amount of associated rubble suggest that it is unlikely that other sections of this wall were more than one story tall. Thus, the construction of the two-story tower would have included (1) the construction of a tall, curved wall that was more than one story (and more than 2.7 m) tall and (2) additional masonry courses, with a doorway, on top of the existing site-enclosing wall. Sometime, probably at this same time, an irregular doorway was created through the original site-enclosing wall to allow access between Structure 1008 (the lower story of the tower) and Courtyard 1000. Tree-ring dates suggest that the tower was built sometime after A.D. 1266.
Refuse was deposited on the natural ground surface east of Kiva 1004 before the construction of the surface of Courtyard 1000. A tree-ring sample from the lowermost (earliest) layer of this trash dated from A.D. 1266, indicating that the refuse was deposited either during or, more likely, sometime after, that year. The courtyard surface and the walls of Rooms 1005, 1006, and 1007 rested on this refuse and therefore were constructed after A.D. 1266. Wall ties and abutments indicate that Room 1005 was built first and that Rooms 1006 and 1007 were built in a single, final construction episode in Kiva Suite 1004.
Some tree-ring dates are available for the kivas that were tested within Block 1000 but were not part of Kiva Suite 1004. These dates indicate that Kiva 1010 (Database Map 4259, Database Map 4014) was constructed sometime after A.D. 1257, Kiva 1012 (Database Map 4264, Database Map 4014) was built after A.D. 1221, and Kiva 1013 (Database Map 4267, Database Map 4014) was built after A.D. 1261 (see stem-and-leaf plots). No other data relevant to the construction sequence of these kivas are available.
Associations Between Excavated Structures
Several lines of evidence support the inference that the structures and outdoor surfaces that were excavated in the vicinity of Kiva 1004 were associated with one another. The orientation of the rooms, the proximity of the rooms to the kiva, and the locations of most doorways suggest that the intensively excavated structures were associated with this kiva. Exterior doorways in the lower story of the tower (Structure 1008) and in Rooms 1002 and 1005 open onto a common courtyard (Courtyard 1000) adjacent to Kiva 1004. A preserved, raised-sill doorway in the southeast wall of Room 1001 provided mutual access between Rooms 1001 and 1002. This doorway was blocked at some time, which indicates a change in access patterns and suggests that use, ownership, or both, of these rooms changed. Possible evidence of a raised-sill doorway was found in the rubble near the northwest wall of Room 1001; if a doorway did exist in this location, it would have allowed access between this room and the unexcavated structure to the northwest. Thus, sometime during the occupation of this portion of Block 1000, use of Room 1001 might have shifted to the residents of the unexcavated kiva suite adjacent to the northwest. Possible evidence of a collapsed doorway was also found in the southwest wall of Room 1003. This doorway, which would have had a raised sill, would have permitted access between this room and Courtyard 1016. An additional opening, an aperture in the southwest wall of a kiva corner room (Room 1018), was knocked through this wall sometime after the wall was built. The exact history of this opening is not known, but it indicates some relationship between the residents of Kiva Suite 1004 and those of the unexcavated structures to the southwest.
Preserved and inferred doorways in Tower 1019/1008 indicate additional associations between excavated structures. A preserved doorway in the site-enclosing wall (Database Map 4121) provided access between the lower story of the tower (Structure 1008) and Courtyard 1000. The existence of three doorways, one each in the southwest, northeast, and southeast walls of the upper story of the tower (Structure 1019; Database Map 4158), was inferred from the distribution of cornerstones in the rubble in those locations. If the southwest doorway did exist, it would have allowed mutual access between the second story of the tower (Structure 1019) and the roof of Room 1002. A northeastern doorway would have permitted access between the second story of the tower and the area outside the site-enclosing wall; a ladder would have been necessary to access this doorway from outside the structure. A southeastern doorway would have allowed passage between the second story of the tower and whatever was southeast of the towerpossibly the roof of an adjacent one-story tower or the upper story of a two-story tower.
All but two of the tested and intensively excavated structures in Block 1000 appear to have been abandoned simultaneously, which was probably when the occupation of the village ended. The two structures that showed evidence of earlier abandonment are a living room (Room 1005) and a corner room (Room 1017) of Kiva 1004. The roof of Room 1005 had been removed, and a fire had been built in collapsed wall debris. In Room 1017, refuse had been deposited, the remains of six individuals had been formally interred over time, and additional refuse had been deposited above the bodies. The presence of burials and secondary refuse indicates that the structure was abandoned before the architectural block, and probably before the associated kiva suite, was abandoned. A third structure, Room 1006, also might have been abandoned while other parts of the associated kiva suite were still in use. Secondary refuse was found in the fill of this possible storage room. It is unclear, however, whether this was ever a roofed room or was just a walled-off space in the south end of Courtyard 1000. No secondary refuse was found in the other structures in Block 1000.
Artifacts interpreted as de facto refuse were found in Room 1003, Kiva 1004, and the lower story of the tower (Structure 1008); these objects were used or stored in these structures when the kiva suite was occupied and were left behind at abandonment. Few artifacts were found on the floors of the other structures in Kiva Suite 1004, suggesting that items were removed from these rooms when, or after, the rooms were abandoned.
Not all human remains found in Kiva Suite 1004 had been formally interred. Human remains occurrences were found in abandonment contexts in Kiva 1004 and Rooms 1001, 1002, 1005, and 1018, as well as in two of the three tested kivas (Kivas 1010 and 1013) (Database Map 4121; also see the HRO feature descriptions in The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database). These remains represent the following individuals:
None of these 11 individuals appeared to have been carefully placed, and the remains of four (HROs 11, 19, 20, and 22) exhibit direct evidence of violent death in the form of unhealed skull fractures. Numerous other bones and bone fragments were found in structure fills both above and below the HROs listed; these bones are not enumerated here, because they were probably displaced from one of the individuals listed above by natural forces long after the village was inhabited. However, other remains, described in Table 1, were scattered in abandonment contexts more distant from the HROs and therefore are more likely to represent additional people, or to have been scattered as the result of intentional human actions associated with a violent event, or both.
The roofs of four structuresall four kivas in which excavations were conductedwere burned to some extent. In Kiva 1004, the human remains were deposited on the floor amid de facto refuse, sediment was then deposited naturally, and finally the roof was burned. In Kiva 1010, the roof might have begun to collapse before the human remains came to rest on the floor, and the roof appears to have been burned shortly after the remains were deposited. The roof of Kiva 1012 was burned either at, or soon after, structure abandonment; no human remains were exposed in the test pit excavated in this structure. Excavation of the test pit in Kiva 1013 was not completed, but the human remains found in this kiva were mixed with burned roofing debris.
Summary and Conclusions
The structures excavated in Architectural Block 1000 appear to have been constructed within a relatively short time about A.D. 1266. Unlike the D-shaped tower (Tower 101) in Block 100, Tower 1019/1008 was not constructed, and was probably not even planned, when the section of the site-enclosing wall associated with Kiva Suite 1004 was built. Evidence indicates that Kiva 1004 was constructed during the first building episode of this suite and that the other structures were built within a few years after that. The use of Room 1001 might have shifted to the unexcavated suite adjacent to the northwest when the doorway in its southeast wall was intentionally plugged. Formal hearths were found only in the kivas. However, informal firepits were found in Rooms 1002, 1005, and 1007; in the lower story of the tower (Structure 1008); and on the surface of Courtyard 1000. The firepits could have been used for the preparation of food; they also would have provided heat and light in these locations. There is ample evidence that a violent event resulted in the deaths of multiple people in Block 1000 and led to the abandonment of the excavated structures. Intentional, but incomplete, burning of the kiva roofs in Block 1000 appears to have been associated with, or occurred shortly after, the violent event.
Crow Canyon's testing of Architectural Block 1200 included the complete excavation of 15 structures, all of which were constructed on bedrock at the canyon rim (Database Photo 3458, Database Map 4159, Database Map 4001): one circular tower (Tower 1203); one aboveground, circular kiva (Kiva 1206); three kiva corner rooms (Rooms 1219, 1220, and 1222) inferred to have been used for storage; one room (Room 1209) inferred to have been a living room; five surface rooms (Rooms 1201, 1202, 1205, 1207, and 1211) inferred to have been used for storage; one mealing room (Room 1212); two surface rooms for which no use could be inferred (Rooms 1204 and 1208); and one large room (Room 1215) that was subdivided into Rooms 1204 and 1212, uses also unknown (Database Map 4159). In addition, one courtyard surface (Courtyard 1210) was excavated, as were refuse deposits (Midden 1214) in Rooms 1204 and 1212. And, finally, the existence of a second-story room (Room 1217) above Room 1205 was inferred. Although only one kiva was excavated in this block, it is probable that not one, but two, kiva suites are represented within this group. Room 1211 is a tiny room that appears to be adjacent to the southern recess and ventilation shaft of an unexcavated kiva to the north (Database Map 4159) and is therefore probably associated with that kiva suite. Furthermore, a third kiva suite might be represented if Tower 1203 was associated with structures on the slope below the crevice entrance in its floor rather than with Kiva Suite 1206.
A substantial amount of construction in Kiva Suite 1206 abuts the inside, or west, face of the site-enclosing wall, including Rooms 1217/1205, Kiva 1206 and its associated corner rooms, and Room 1208. In this area of the site, the enclosing wall is oriented nearly due north-south. Kiva Suite 1206 is located at the edge of the canyon rim, and a cliff drop-off forms the west edge of the suite. A few additional structures in this architectural block are located along the rim north and south of Kiva Suite 1206. Architectural Block 1100 is to the west, on the slope below the rim (Database Map 4001).
Although the observed wall ties and abutments allow a generally straightforward interpretation of the construction sequence within the excavated portion of Block 1200, the early part of the construction sequence is the least clear. Among the constructions in this suite, either the site-enclosing wall or Tower 1203 was built first (Database Map 4159). The site-enclosing wall, which is several meters east of the canyon rim, was probably intentionally located a specific distance from the rim to allow space for the construction of a kiva suite between the rim and the wall. Thus, the construction of a kiva suite probably was planned when the site-enclosing wall was built. It is not known whether the construction of this wall proceeded from the north or the south in this area of the village.
Tower 1203 was constructed at the very edge of the canyon rim; it was not possible to determine whether this occurred before or after the enclosing wall was built. The only observable entry into the tower was through a natural canyon-rim crevice in the floor, although a doorway could have originally existed in the west wall, much of which had collapsed (Database Photo 3490). The one tree-ring date for this tower indicates only that the structure was built sometime after A.D. 1169; the date is probably from a reused or damaged beam and is not believed to accurately reflect the date of construction.
The construction sequence of the other excavated structures in Block 1200 is more straightforward. Rooms 1217/1205, which together form a two-story structure, were constructed after the site-enclosing wall. This building abuts the inside, or west, face of that wall. Tree-ring dates suggest that this structure was built in A.D. 1260 (see stem-and-leaf plot for Room 1205). In the next construction episode, Rooms 1201, 1202, 1207, and 1209 and most of the wall that encloses Kiva 1206 were built. There are no tree-ring dates for this episode. Probably immediately, or at least soon, thereafter, Room 1208, Kiva 1206, and Rooms 1219, 1220, and 1222 (kiva corner rooms) were built. The construction of the kiva appears to have been planned when most of the wall that encloses the kiva was built. However, the kiva and Room 1220 (the southeast corner room) could not have been constructed until after Room 1208, or at least the north wall of Room 1208, was built (Database Map 4159), because this wall completes the enclosure necessary for the construction of this aboveground kiva. The south wall of Room 1208 could have been built at this same time or at any time after this. Tree-ring dates for the kiva suggest that construction occurred in A.D. 1262. However, a date of A.D. 1265 was obtained for the bench-level, hatchway roof of Room 1219 (the northeast corner room); it is therefore possible that the kiva and corner rooms were constructed in A.D. 1265 using many stockpiled timbers. Alternatively, construction of the kiva and corner rooms could have occurred in A.D. 1262, and the hatchway roof of Room 1219 could have been repaired in A.D. 1265.
In another episode that could have occurred anytime after the construction of Room 1209, Room 1215 was created between the northwest section of the kiva-enclosing wall and Tower 1203 (Database Map 4159). This large room was built sometime after A.D. 1260. Tiny Room 1211 could have been built anytime after the northeast wall of Room 1215 was constructed; this room probably served as a corner room for an unexcavated kiva adjacent to the north. Room 1215 was later subdivided, creating Rooms 1204 and 1212.
Associations Between Excavated Structures
The available data suggest that the excavated structures, with the exception of Room 1211 and possibly Tower 1203, were part of Kiva Suite 1206. As mentioned above, Room 1211 was probably a corner room of an unexcavated kiva adjacent to the north. Tower 1203, which appears to have been entered through the floor via a crevice in the canyon rim, could have been associated with structures below the rim rather than with Kiva Suite 1206. The proximity of the other excavated rooms to the excavated kiva (Kiva 1206) and the topography in the location of the suite overall suggest that the other 13 excavated structures formed one kiva suite. Only one doorway was found in this suite. This was a raised-sill doorway that allowed access between a kiva corner room (Room 1220) (see Database Map 4159 and Database Map 4192) and Room 1208, a room for which no use could be inferred. Apparently, most structures in this suite were accessed exclusively though hatchways.
Most of the excavated structures in Block 1200 appear to have been abandoned at one time. Evidence of this consists of the lack of substantial refuse deposits in any structures except Rooms 1204 and 1212. Refuse appears to have been dumped into these two rooms for a considerable length of time after they were abandoned; this refuse might have been deposited by the residents of Kiva Suite 1206 or of an adjacent suite.
The structures in the intensively excavated portion of Block 1200 were probably abandoned a short time before occupation of the entire block, and the village, ended. The following are indications that the village continued to be inhabited after Kiva Suite 1206 was abandoned: (1) roofing materials were missing from Rooms 1207 and 1209 and presumably were removed for reuse elsewhere in the village; (2) small amounts of refuse were clustered in specific locationsprobably underneath hatchwayson the floors of Rooms 1205, 1207, 1219, and 1222 and on the floor of Kiva 1206; and (3) few items were left on structure floors, perhaps indicating that most belongings were scavenged. After material was deposited on the floor of Kiva 1206, some portion of the roof was burned and other portions appear to have been salvaged. No other structure roofs in this suite were burned.
Scattered human bones were found in several abandonment contexts in this kiva suite. These bones consist of the following: (1) a metatarsal fragment in the collapsed roof of Kiva 1206; (2) a vertebra on the floor of Room 1219; (3) a temporal fragment in collapsed wall and roof debris in Room 1205; and (4) a rib, three long-bone fragments, a metatarsal, a cuboid, and an ulna fragment in collapsed wall debris in Arbitrary Unit 1216 (the fill above Rooms 1204 and 1212; see Database Map 4181). How these bones came to be in these contexts is not known.
Summary and Conclusions
Evidence indicates that, except for Room 1211 and possibly Tower 1203, the structures excavated in Block 1200 formed one complete kiva suite (Kiva Suite 1206). It is probable that construction of this suite began in A.D. 1260, that the structures in the suite were built in rapid succession over the course of two to five years, and that the suite was abandoned sometime after A.D. 1265 but while other parts of the village were still inhabited. Very little remodeling was noted within the suite, which is suggestive of a relatively short occupation span. One hearth was found in Kiva 1206 and another was found in Room 1209; burned spots were present in Rooms 1208 and 1212. These would have been the only structures in this suite where food could have been cooked, and the only structures that could have been heated in the winter or lighted after dark. Thus, many domestic activities probably occurred in the kiva and in Room 1209. The scattering of human bones in abandonment contexts within this kiva suite might have resulted from events surrounding the end of the occupation of the village (see paragraphs 194197).
The structural layout of Architectural Block 1500 is distinctive, consisting primarily of two ordinary-size kivas surrounded by a large, D-shaped, bi-wall construction made up of multiple arc-shaped surface rooms (Database Map 4196). Crow Canyon's sampling of this block consisted of the partial excavation of both kivas (Kivas 1501 and 1502), a two-story kiva corner room (Rooms 1523/1524), most of the bi-wall rooms (Rooms 1503, 1504, 1525/1505, 1526/1507, 1508, 1510, 1511, 1512, 1513, and 1518), and a two-story building (Rooms 1527/1519) located immediately north of Kiva 1502, within the space defined by the inner D-shaped wall (Database Map 4196, Database Map 4001). Also, one bi-wall room (Room 1509) and a kiva corner room (Room 1521) were completely excavated. The room southwest of Room 1513 was the only bi-wall room in which no excavation occurred. Extramural surfaces and refuse (Nonstructure 1500) north and west of the block and an extramural surface and refuse (Nonstructure 1506) east of the block were sampled. Rooms 1507, 1519, 1521, and 1524 are inferred to have been used for storage; the uses of the other rooms could not be determined. All structures excavated in this block were aboveground. Two ordinary-size kivas are present in this block; therefore, two kiva suites are represented. There is ample evidence, however, that this complex was designed for special purposes, rather than for ordinary domestic use, and it probably fits Crow Canyon's definition of public architecture (see "Structure Use" for Structures 15011505, 15071513, 1518, 1519, 1521, 1523, and 15241527 in The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database). This block does not contact the site-enclosing wall but nonetheless is located within the arc of that wall and is approximately 32 m east of it (Database Map 4001). North of this block is Architectural Block 300, to the west is open space referred to as the plaza (Database Map 4003), and to the south and east is Block 600.
Evidence indicates that the bi-wall rooms were tall. Some appear to have been 2.5 m (98 in) to 3.0 m (118 in) in height, although this is not tall enough to have accommodated two full-height stories (which require approximately 3.8 to 4.0 m, or 12 to 13 ft, of wall height). There is evidence of second-story structures above Rooms 1505, 1507, 1519, and 1524, but the associated ground-story rooms were not full height. The excavated portion of Room 1505 (bi-wall room) was tall enough for an adult to stand upright, except in the north end of the room, where the bedrock floor sloped upward. In this area, just south of the doorway, the roof (as indicated by the location of a ledge inferred to have supported the roof) was only approximately 1.2 m (47 in) above the bedrock, so an adult entering or exiting through the doorway would have had to bend over or crawl. The roof of Room 1519 was 1.3 m (51 in) above the floor, and the roofs of Rooms 1507 (a bi-wall room) and 1524 (a kiva corner room) were less than 1 m (39 in) above their respective floors. Adults therefore would not have been able to stand upright in these three ground-story rooms. The heights of the second-story rooms could not be determined.
Many details of the Block 1500 construction sequence are unknown. The observed ties and abutments of walls within the block indicate that the outer D-shaped wall and the inner D-shaped wall were built in one construction episode each and that the cross walls that created the individual bi-wall rooms were added after these two walls were built (Database Map 4196). However, with the data available, it is not possible to determine which of the two D-shaped walls was built first. If the inner D-shaped wall was built first, then surfaces or structures within that enclosure could have been built as soon as the enclosure was completed, and the outer D-shaped wall and the bi-wall rooms could have been added later.
Regardless of which of the D-shaped walls was built first, the continuous construction of the outer wall indicates that all the bi-wall rooms were planned, and all were probably constructed at the same time, perhaps as soon as both D-shaped walls were completed. If the bi-wall rooms were constructed at one time, then the A.D. 1260 tree-ring date obtained for Room 1503 might be the best indication of when these rooms were built (tree-ring samples that yielded dates of A.D. 1262 and 1268 were found in Room 1511, but these samples were from secondary refuse and therefore might not accurately date the construction of that room) (see stem-and-leaf plots).
It is possible that the two D-shaped walls and the bi-wall rooms were constructed first, and the interior structures (the two kivas, the kiva corner rooms, and Rooms 1527/1519) were added later. It should be pointed out that the lowermost three courses of the north end of the north-south wall that divides the interior space and separates the two kivas are tied to the inner D-shaped wall. Thus, the division of this space into two parts was planned, and at least partly executed, when the inner D-shaped wall was constructed. It is not known, however, if the upper courses of this dividing wall (and one or both kivas) were constructed at that same time or were added later.
Although doorways originally allowed access between each of three bi-wall rooms (Rooms 1504, 1509, and whatever room is located west of Kiva 1502) and the interior space or spaces defined by the inner D-shaped wall, the data do not clearly indicate whether that space was used as a courtyard before one or both kivas were built. Two lines of evidence suggest that the area was not used as a courtyard: (1) no evidence of a courtyard surface was found beneath the floor of Kiva 1501, and (2) the sill of the doorway between Room 1504 and Kiva 1501 is approximately 1.53 m above the bedrock surface to the south, a height that would have necessitated the use of a ladder. In addition, it was not necessary to place the doorway at this great height, because the doorway is 54 cm above the floor of Room 1504 (Database Photo 2065), and thus, could just as well have been constructed 54 cm lower. However, neither does this doorway appear to have been designed to provide access into Kiva 1501, because this doorway, with its sill 53 cm above the kiva bench surface (Database Photo 4578), would have been blocked by the kiva roof. Furthermore, the northeast wall of Room 1521 (which is tied to Pilaster 3) abuts a portion of the masonry plug in this doorway; this indicates that the masonry plug was in place before Kiva 1501 was built. It is possible that the doorway was built only as a temporary opening to facilitate the construction of Kiva 1501, but if so, a surprising amount of care went into its construction (Database Photo 2065). The history and purpose of this doorway thus remain unknown.
The foregoing notwithstanding, other evidence suggests that there might have been a courtyard in at least the west part of the space defined by the inner D-shaped wall before one or both kivas were built. Although no evidence of a courtyard surface was found beneath the floor of Kiva 1501, possible evidence of one or more constructed surfaces that could predate Kiva 1502 was documented beneath the floor of that kiva. The data also indicate that Rooms 1527/1519 were built after the north-south dividing wall between the kivas, but before those possible courtyard surfaces were laid. Tree-ring dates for these structures seem to support this proposed series of events (see stem-and-leaf plots for Block 1500). The tree-ring dates for Kiva 1501 indicate that this kiva was built in A.D. 1261, dates for Rooms 1527/1519 indicate construction any time after A.D. 1259, and dates for Kiva 1502 suggest construction in or after A.D. 1270.
The architectural evidence and the tree-ring dates for this block overall, then, suggest that the two D-shaped walls, the bi-wall rooms, Kiva 1501 and its corner rooms, and Rooms 1527/1519 were built in that order and in rapid succession about A.D. 1260, and that Kiva 1502 was constructed about 10 years later. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that, before Kiva 1502 was built, this enclosed space was left open and was accessed from the outside through doorways in the south (Database Photo 1530) and west walls of both D-shaped enclosures (Database Map 4196). Alternatively, it is possible that Kiva 1502 was constructed about the same time as Kiva 1501 and the bi-wall rooms; however, the field records and the tree-ring data for Kiva 1502 do not support this theory.
Associations Between Excavated Structures
The layout of Block 1500 as a discrete block separated from other buildings in the village strongly supports the inference that the structures contained within the block were associated with one another. The high degree of access between structures suggests an additional level of association. Twelve doorways were documented in this block, although only two are known to have been open when the occupation of the block ended. All doorways observed were carefully constructed at the same time as the wall in which they were located (that is, no doorways were knocked through walls after the walls were built). All were of the raised-sill variety, with the exception of the two known exterior doorways (doorways through the outer D-shaped wall), which allowed entry into the block (Database Map 4196).
Both of the exterior entryways are unusual. One is a very tall doorway (more than 1.92 m tall originally, though made smaller through remodeling) in the west wall of the outer D-shaped wall (Database Photo 2212), and the other is in a bedrock crevice below the south wall (Database Photo 2394). The west doorway was the only exterior floor-level doorway exposed during Crow Canyon's excavations that did not open onto a protected, kiva-suite courtyard (see Database Map 4001 and Database Map 4003), and as such it suggests special use of this building. In addition, the large size of this doorway, as well as its location in an exterior wall and at the edge of a large, level space that does not appear to contain structures, supports the theory that the open space that the doorway borders was a plaza (see paragraphs 162164).
The west and south entries were each paired with a doorway through the inner D-shaped wall. This arrangement allowed access from outside the building directly into the west interior space or courtyard, at least until Kiva 1502 was built, which probably blocked both the south and west doorways through the inner D-shaped wall. The presence of a short segment of wall that appears to have been added to the back, or south end, of Pilaster 6 (Database Map 4215) after Kiva 1502 was built suggests the possibility that the original southern recess construction might have been designed to keep the uppermost portion of this doorway passable for a while after the kiva was built; however, the entire doorway was eventually plugged (Database Photo 1530).
Within the D-shaped block, doorways originally allowed mutual access between all the bi-wall rooms except between Room 1508 and the unexcavated room to the east, between Rooms 1509 and 1510, between Rooms 1510 and Room 1518, and between Rooms 1518 and 1507. It is not known whether Rooms 1507 and 1511 were joined by a doorway. It is also not known if Rooms 1503 and 1505 were two rooms or one very long, narrow room. It is apparent that the rooms in the curved part of the "D" were more mutually accessible than the rooms along the straight part of the "D." Because nearly every doorway observed in this block had been plugged, and because it is assumed that there must have been some mode of entry into every structure even after the doorways were sealed, it is inferred that most, if not all, structures in this block had a roof hatchway.
The special configuration of this building, the large number of interior doorways, the very large entry door that faced onto the plaza (Database Map 4003), and the atypical features within the kivas (such as the large floor vault in Kiva 1501 and the subfloor as well as floor-level ventilation systems in both kivas) strongly suggest that the building was created for special use and that the interior structures were associated in special ways. The fact that nearly all the doorways were blocked and that there is evidence of a substantial amount of remodeling in the kivas (including the filling of the floor vault) indicates that the use of the building and the structures within it changed at some time. Although it is not possible to state when the doorways were blocked, their careful construction suggests that they were designed to do more than facilitate building construction; it therefore seems likely that they remained open and functional for some time after the block was built.
Some structures in Block 1500 were abandoned while the rest of the block continued to be used. A considerable amount of secondary refuse was deposited in Room 1511 (a bi-wall room), Room 1507 (a lower-story bi-wall room), and Room 1519 (a lower-story room); a substantial amount of trash also appears to have been left on the roof of Room 1527 (an upper-story room). A small amount of refuse was dumped into Room 1513 (a bi-wall room) and possibly into Room 1524 (a lower-story corner room). The other structures contain no secondary refuse, and few artifacts were left on the floors of any structures in this block, with the exception of those in the kivas. Whatever objects had been used or stored in the rooms had been removed, either when the structures were abandoned or sometime later. It is unclear whether the objects on the floors of the kivas were left there at the end of structure use; there is evidence of brief reuse of both kivas after naturally deposited sediment had accumulated beneath their respective hatchway openings. After this brief reuse, the roofs of both kivas, but not the roofs of any other structures in the block, were burned. Remnants of roof timbers were found in every structure except Room 1507 (which had been filled with secondary refuse). This suggests that timbers from these rooms had not been salvaged and supports the inference that the block was abandoned not long before the occupation of the village ended.
Human remains found in abandonment contexts in Block 1500 consist of the following seven disarticulated bones and fragments: a mandible fragment and a burned humerus fragment from mixed roof- and wall-collapse debris in Room 1504; a metatarsal from mixed roof- and wall-collapse debris in Room 1512; two cranial fragments from unburned roof-collapse debris that was deposited in Kiva 1502 before the roof was burned; a talus in the crevice of the bedrock floor in Room 1509; and a phalanx from wall- and roof-collapse debris in Room 1510. It is not clear how these bones came to be deposited in these locations, but it is possible that the deaths of these individuals were related to circumstances surrounding the end of the occupation of the village (see paragraphs 194197). Several other human bones were found in deposits that had been recently disturbed in this block, but the original contexts of those bones are not known.
Summary and Conclusions
The evidence suggests that, with the exception of Kiva 1502, the structures in Block 1500 were constructed about A.D. 1260 or 1261; Kiva 1502 was added about A.D. 1270. The planned, D-shaped, bi-wall layout, the central location within the village, the positioning of the flat edge of the "D" along the straight edge of a dramatic topographic drop-off, the construction of the concentric inner and outer D-shaped walls in one construction episode each, the uniformity of the bi-wall rooms, the numerous interconnecting doorways, and the alignment of the exterior entryways with interior doorways are all indications of the careful design and planning of this building (although the construction of Kiva 1502 might not have been planned at the outset). The presence of an oversize doorway opening onto the plaza, the paired entries through the outer and inner D-shaped walls into the interior space through both the west and the south walls, the presence of a large floor vault in Kiva 1501, and the abundant access between bi-wall rooms are all evidence that this complex was designed and originally used for a special purpose. The later blocking of almost all doorways, the considerable reduction of the oversize doorway facing the plaza, the sealing of the large floor vault, and the substantial remodeling of other interior features suggest that the use of this block changed significantly, possibly becoming more residential. It is assumed that after the doorways were blocked, most interstructure movement within the block was through hatchways. Although there was some evidence that thermal features were present on the roofs of Room 1513 and 1527, formal hearths were found only in the kivas. This indicates that, throughout the use of this block, cooking, winter activities, and nighttime activities requiring light took place in the kivas and not in the bi-wall rooms. The block seems to have been abandoned somewhat before the occupation of the village ended; this is indicated by the lack of de facto refuse on the floors of most structures and the accumulation of naturally deposited sediment on the floors of the kivas beneath burned, collapsed roof debris.
Block 1500 appears to have been used for a substantial period of time. Even though Kiva 1502 might have been built as late as A.D. 1270, several of its features had been remodeled and its walls had been plastered at least four times. The presence of unsalvaged wood in the collapsed roofing material found throughout the block suggests that the block was abandoned near the end of village occupation, and the intentional, but incomplete, burning of the kiva roofs could have been associated with events that occurred during that time.
Architectural Block 1600 consists of one isolated, circular, semisubterranean kiva (Kiva 1601) and its oval encircling wall (Database Map 4277). Fieldwork in this block was limited to exposing the tops of walls and excavating the southeast quarter of the kiva down to the floor. The kiva is located outside the site-enclosing wall, 36 m north of Block 100 (Database Map 4001). The encircling wall probably helped to stabilize the portions of the kiva walls that were above the prehistoric ground surface. At the time of Crow Canyon's excavations, only a few courses of this wall remained. The features observed within the excavated portion of the kiva appear typical, and there were no noticeable differences between this architecture and that of the other kivas observed at Sand Canyon Pueblo. However, the absence of associated structures makes it difficult to infer how the structure was used.
The dating of this structure is also problematic. Tree-ring samples that yielded dates of A.D. 1098vv and 1202vv were found in the fill of the structure, but it is not known whether the samples were from the roof of the kiva or were associated with a small episode of burning that occurred after the kiva depression had almost filled with sediment. The few pottery sherds collected from the floor of this shallow kiva are of types that indicate only that the structure was abandoned sometime after A.D. 1100. The roof timbers apparently were salvaged from the structure. The bench-face masonry was not dismantled, but building stones appear to have been removed from the upper lining wall. Timbers were also removed from many structures within the village itself, and building stones were removed from some. The upper fill of Kiva 1601 contains a lens of ash associated with the aforementioned episode of burning, as well as some culturally deposited artifacts above that. Mesa Verde Black-on-white (produced after A.D. 1180) sherds were among these artifacts; the presence of these later sherds suggests that the kiva was not abandoned before about A.D. 1150 and could have been abandoned any time between that year and regional depopulation in the final decades of the A.D. 1200s. The location of this kiva outside the area encompassed by the site-enclosing wall might indicate that the structure predated the village. In sum, the dating of this structure, as well as its use, remains uncertain; the kiva could predate the village, or it could have been constructed and abandoned early in the occupation of the village.
Most of what is known about Blocks 400, 600, 700, and 1400 (Database Map 4001) derives from the excavation of 1-x-2-m test pits in selected kivas. In this section, information about these four blocks is presented. Data were collected primarily from Kivas 400, 600, 601, 602, 700, and 1400; selected information is summarized in Table 2, and additional details are contained in the following paragraphs and in The Sand Canyon Pueblo Database. Each of these kivas is thought to represent one kiva suite that was not otherwise sampled during Crow Canyon's excavations at the site. Of the four blocks discussed in this section, only Block 1400 is located east of the drainage that divides the site.
Important dating information in addition to that contained in Table 2 relates to Block 700. A tree-ring sample collected from a random 2-x-2-m pit (897N 962E) in Arbitrary Unit 2 at the northeast edge of Block 700 (Database Map 4011) yielded a date of A.D. 1277vv, which is the latest tree-ring date for the site. This sample was found in what was described as wall debris inferred to have collapsed from an undefined, unexcavated structure to the west, in Block 700. This suggests that there might have been a structure in that area of the village that was constructed after A.D. 1277. However, the dated sample is of pinyon pine (see paragraph 19), and so may not date the construction of a building. In any case, the date does indicate that the village was still occupied until sometime after A.D. 1277.
Evidence of abandonment events was found in all six of the kivas discussed in this section. All six roofs were burned to some extent, although the amount of roofing material that was burned varied from structure to structure. No trash was contained in the fill of any of the structures, which suggests that habitation of the surrounding structures did not continue after these kivas were abandoned. Human remains were found in abandonment contexts in Kivas 400, 602, and 700; the remains represent the following individuals:
Thus, the six kivas appear to have been abandoned at the same time that their respective suites were abandoned, and they might have been abandoned when the occupation of the village ended. In addition, given the evidence of violence at this site (see paragraph 46, paragraph 126, and paragraphs 194196), the presence of human remains in three of these kivas could be interpreted as further evidence that the abandonment of those structures coincided with the end of village occupation and the associated violence.
The space referred to as the "plaza" at Sand Canyon Pueblo consists of a large, generally level area bordered by the site-enclosing wall and Architectural Blocks 100, 200, 300, 500, 900, and 1500 (Database Map 4001, Database Map 4003). Crow Canyon researchers define a plaza as a large, open space, often enclosed on two or more sides by buildings; plazas are inferred to have been used for many types of gatherings and activities. Only a modest amount of excavation was conducted in the plaza at this site. The plaza surface was exposed in four 2-x-2-m test pits in Arbitrary Unit 2 (935N 993E, 951N 1010E, 971N 1012E, and 975N 1002E) and in two trenches in Nonstructure 1500 (Segments 1 and 2). The Nonstructure 1500 segments were excavated immediately adjacent to the north and west walls of the D-shaped block, respectively (Database Map 4001).
The plaza surface as exposed in the six test pits consisted of an unmodified, generally level, bedrock surface whose depth averaged 20 to 30 cm below the modern ground surface. However, in the portion of Segment 2 of Nonstructure 1500 nearest the west wall of Block 1500 (Database Map 4196), the plaza consisted of a series of three sediment surfaces superimposed on the bedrock. The vertical location of the two earliest surfaces generally corresponded to the elevation of the original doorway in the west wall of the building; the most-recent surface was at approximately the same level as the remodeled doorway (see Nonstructure 1500, Features 1 and 2) (Database Photo 2212). In the northwesternmost exposure of plaza surface (in Arbitrary Unit 2, 2-x-2-m unit 975N 1002E), 10 small grooves and pits had been pecked or abraded into the bedrock. It is not known whether these features were created before or after this area of bedrock was defined and used as a plaza by the villagers.
Secondary refuse was present in all test pits in which the plaza surface was exposed. In other words, exposed bedrock was the original plaza surface, then secondary refuse was deposited on this surface in the areas excavated and so probably in other areas as well. The origins of the various refuse deposits are not known, but it is likely that activities that occurred either in the plaza or in the roomblocks adjacent to the plaza resulted in the accumulation of the trash.
The Site-Enclosing Wall
A massive, arc-shaped masonry wall enclosed much of Sand Canyon Pueblo (Database Map 4001). This wall was an important construction that affected the location and orientation of many of the buildings that were constructed subsequently. Also enclosed within the arc of this wall was a spring, which presumably was the main source of domestic water for the villagers. Many buildings were constructed against the inside face of the wall, and at least a few structures were abutted to the outside face, including D-shaped towers and possibly some of the structures at the southeast end of Block 700 (Database Map 4001). The inside face of several sections of the wall and the outside face of a few sections were exposed during intensive excavations in Blocks 100, 200, 1000, and 1200. In unexcavated areas, the wall is observable as linear rubble on the modern ground surface. Field documentation of this wall is not sufficiently detailed to allow systematic comparison of construction details between sections of the wall exposed in different areas of the site, and thus it is difficult to determine the number and timing of different construction episodes.
A few blocks tested during Crow Canyon's excavations were not within the area enclosed by this wall. Block 1600, which actually consists only of Kiva 1601 and its enclosing wall, is located 36 m north of the portion of the site-enclosing wall in the area of Block 100. It is not possible, however, to determine whether the site-enclosing wall existed when this kiva was built (see paragraph 158). Also, no evidence of a site-enclosing wall was detected in the vicinity of Block 1400, which would have been near the southeast edge of the village. Evidence of the wall becomes indistinct in the southwest portion of the site in the area of Architectural Block 500 and west of Block 800, although it appears that there is a separate section of wall south of Block 800 (Database Map 4012). It is not clear whether the wall was ever continuous through these areas; resolving the issue would require additional excavation. However, the location of Block 700, which is outside the extrapolated arc of the wall, makes it unlikely that it was ever enclosed by the wall.
The methods used to construct the site-enclosing wall varied somewhat between the areas of the wall that were exposed by excavation. The cross section was recorded as possibly being double-stone-with-core (the west wall of Tower 1019/1008 and the north wall of Room 106) or double-bonded (the east wall of Room 1002). The stones used to construct the enclosing wall are generally larger and more irregular than those used in other walls exposed at the site, although the portion of the enclosing wall exposed in Kiva 107 (Database Photo 2687) does not fit this description. There appears to be some similarity in the mortar used in the construction of the enclosing wall in different areas of the site, but field documentation of mortar is available for only a few sections of wall. Variation in construction methods of the wall in different areas of the site could reasonably be inferred to indicate different construction episodes, different masons, or both.
The exposed sections of the site-enclosing wall range from a preserved high of approximately 2.4 m (the east wall of Rooms 1217/1205) to a low of 90 cm (at the doorway in Nonstructure 201). Not surprisingly, the two tallest recorded sections of the enclosing wall are associated with two-story structures (Tower 1019/1008 and Rooms 1217/1205). The tallest section that is not associated with a two-story structure is the east wall of Room 1208, which is approximately 2 m tall. The width of the wall also varies, from approximately 50 cm (in Room 1208) to 75 cm (in Nonstructure 201).
Although there is evidence to suggest that large sections of the site-enclosing wall were built in one construction episode, three discontinuities are known to exist in this wall. One is a construction break at the east wall of Tower 101 evidenced by the abutment of one section of the enclosing wall to another section of the wall and to the tower itself (Database Map 4021) (also see paragraph 37). The second known discontinuity in the wall is a physical gap located at the drainage that divides the site. Because there is no evidence of a reservoir immediately north of this gap, it is assumed that the gap was also present during the occupation of the village and was designed to accommodate the flow of water down the drainage. In addition, a third discontinuity in the wall (and the second actual gap) was observed at the north edge of Block 200, although it is unclear whether this gap represents an actual construction break. In any case, despite earlier descriptions to the contrary (Bradley 1992*2:95, 1993*1:39; Morgan 1994*1:143; Ortman and Bradley 2002*1:49), the evidence indicates that the entire site-enclosing wall was not built in a single construction event (also see paragraph 37).
The presence of the construction break at the east wall of Tower 101 could indicate that the section of the enclosing wall east of the break, but west of the drainage that divides the site, was not built until the structures associated with it were built, which appears to have been about A.D. 1271 (see paragraphs 3839, in the discussion of Kiva 102). The best indication of when the enclosing wall east of the drainage was constructed comes from Kiva Suite 1004, which was built about A.D. 1266; this indicates that the portion of the enclosing wall in that area was also built about 1266 or earlier. If these two dates accurately reflect the time of construction of those sections of the enclosing wall, it indicates that from about A.D. 1266 until approximately 1271, there would have been a large gap from the east wall of Tower 101 to the north end of the enclosing wall on the east side of the drainage. Nevertheless, it is possible that, even though there was a large gap, the section of enclosing wall southwest of Tower 101 was built at the same time as additional sections of the wall east of the drainage.
The break in the site-enclosing wall at the north edge of Block 200 (Database Map 4001, Database Map 4055) was recorded as a doorway (Nonstructure 201, Feature 1), but at the time of excavation, it was simply a gap in the wall. It is not known if this feature was constructed as a simple gap or as a doorway with a lintel or some other continuous structural material across the top. If the latter, then wall construction would have been continuous above the opening. If the opening was simply a gap, construction need not have been continuous, and it could represent a temporal break in construction.
There is a good deal of evidence that the site-enclosing wall at Sand Canyon Pueblo served defensive purposes. In a study of enclosing walls in this region, Kenzle (1993*1) found that "walled sites tend to be medium-sized to large late Pueblo III habitations located in defensible situations," but she suggests that further study is needed to determine which of a wide range of possible sociophysical functions each of these walls might also have served. At Sand Canyon Pueblo, the massive construction, the configuration, the inferred height, the presence of loopholes inferred to have been sighting apertures, the placement of towers against the outside face, and the apparent scarcity of access openings (although it is unknown how many such openings are buried beneath the modern ground surface in areas of the site that were not excavated) are all defensive attributes and suggest that at least one purpose of this wall was to protect the villagers against attackers and possibly to control access to the spring at the center of the village.
Several characteristics of the towers that were built against the outside face of the site-enclosing wall would have been especially defensive. For example, the location of these structures against the outside face of the enclosing wall would have afforded the residents of the village a much wider view of the surrounding terrain than would have been available from any structure inside the enclosing wall. The towers would have been useful for spotting intruders near the outside face of the wall, and villagers positioned in them would have had an unobstructed line of fire along that wall face. Many towers were constructed during the thirteenth century in this region, and towers were incorporated into numerous defensive walls and enclosing walls in the northern Southwest (Kenzle 1993*1:Appendix D; Mackey and Green 1979*1:Figure 2). However, few towers were attached to the exterior faces of enclosing walls in the Southwest in general (Kenzle 1993*1:Appendix D; Morgan 1994*1), although any tower that protruded even partly beyond the exterior face of an enclosing wall could have afforded the same defensive advantages as these towers at Sand Canyon Pueblo.
Access into the two towers excavated at Sand Canyon Pueblo was carefully controlledthe only ground-level access was through the site-enclosing wall back into the village, which would have been a very effective means of restricting access into the towers themselves and also would have prevented the use of the towers by outsiders as points of easy entry into the village. Access to the roof or to any upper-story doorways that might have been present in the exterior walls of the towers (such as in the upper story of Tower 1019/1008) could have been easily controlled by withdrawing a ladder.
Minimizing access through the enclosing wall itself could have been another defensive strategy. For example, the width of the one documented opening (Feature 1, Nonstructure 201) that allowed passage from outside the wall into the village was reduced substantially by the addition of masonry to both sides of the opening, after 40 cm of sediment had been deposited naturally at its base. It is also likely that the width of a large gap that might have originally been present in the wall in the vicinity of the main drainage was reduced significantly midway through the occupation of the village (see paragraph 170). That is, a section of the site-enclosing wall in the eastern half of Block 100 (Database Map 4001) appears to have been added in a separate construction event, possibly about A.D. 1271, and might have been designed to further restrict access by outsiders down the drainage to the spring.
In this section, interblock dating of the village, various topics relating to architecture, and the final events that are inferred to have taken place in the village are discussed.
Because only a small percentage of the structures at the site were excavated, the precise order in which the kiva suites and architectural blocks were built cannot be stated with certainty. Some general statements with regard to the developmental history of the village can be supported, however. Table 3 lists estimated dates of construction for various excavated structures and blocks (see Database Map 4001 for block locations). The earliest firm tree-ring dates from the site that can be confidently used to estimate time of construction are for samples collected from Block 500, which was probably built about A.D. 1252. The great kiva could have been built during that decade as well, but the available dates for most of the structures indicate that the village was essentially created during a building boom in the A.D. 1260s. Some construction apparently continued into the early 1270s. It is unclear whether the sparse dates in the mid-1270s (all of which are from the few pinyon pine samples collected and all of which are noncutting dates) reflect the latest construction in the village or are from fuelwood and therefore indicate only that occupation of the village continued until at least late in that decade. That this occupation span was late in the occupation of the Mesa Verde region is substantiated by the prevalence, in the black-on-white subassemblage, of sherds identified as Mesa Verde Black-on-white and the scarcity of sherds of McElmo Black-on-white. The former type is known to have been manufactured between A.D. 1180 and 1300; the latter type was produced between A.D. 1075 and 1300, but its manufacture appears to have decreased dramatically by the mid-1200s (Ortman and Bradley 2002*1:Table 3.3).
Several aspects of the architecture observed during Crow Canyon's excavations at Sand Canyon Pueblo are worthy of discussion at the site-wide level. The following topics are discussed below: public architecture, evidence of two-story construction in the village, and, in kivas, subfloor ventilation systems and numbers of pilasters.
Several constructions at Sand Canyon Pueblo might have been public architecture, including the site-enclosing wall, the D-shaped building (Block 1500), the great kiva complex (Block 800), Block 300, and the plaza.(4) Some of these constructions show evidence of planning at the level of both the individual structure and the village as a whole. An example of the latter is the design and construction of the site-enclosing wall. The building of this wall probably involved the communal labor of those who planned to settle in this location, although it is probable that at least a few structures were built before construction of the site-enclosing wall began. It is also likely that a sizable group of people built this wall in large sections with the intention of constructing many kivas and surface rooms, some against the inside face of the wall and others merely within its enclosing arc, and that the wall was constructed at least partly for defensive purposes (see discussion above, paragraphs 172175).
Block 1500, the D-shaped block, was perhaps the most impressive example of public architecture observed at this site. The location and layout of the block appears to have been carefully planned. The block was designed to be accessible from the plaza through a very large western entryway (Database Photo 2212). However, the size of this large doorway was later substantially reduced (Database Photo 2212), and nearly all interior doorways were blocked, indicating a change in access patterns for, and probably in the use of, this particular complex sometime during its occupation. In contrast, it is possible that Great Kiva 800 at Sand Canyon was never roofed, or, if it was, its roof was removed at some point. Use of the structure might have continued after the removal of the roof. If the kiva was ever used in an unroofed condition, this would probably reflect unrestricted access by villagers.
There are some interesting similarities between the D-shaped block and the great kiva complex at this site. First, both have rooms around their perimeters that contain few clues to suggest how they were used. The absence of hearths in the rooms indicates that in neither complex were these surrounding structures habitational; however, there is little other evidence in the form of interior features or floor artifacts to suggest any other type of use or to indicate the relationship of the rooms to one another or to the associated kiva(s). There are also few clues to the use(s) of such structures in published descriptions of peripheral and bi-wall rooms excavated at other sites. Although the absence of features in rooms in residential kiva suites is usually interpreted as evidence that the rooms were used for storage, it is not clear that this same interpretation would be valid for similar rooms in blocks that appear to have been constructed for nondomestic or specialized use.
Second, both the D-shaped building and the great kiva complex contain a kiva with a floor vault. Indeed, the only two floor vaults observed during excavations at this site were found in Kiva 1501 and Great Kiva 800. A floor vault was also associated with the oversize kiva inside the bi-wall structure in Block 1200 at Yellow Jacket Pueblo (Kuckelman 2003*2:par. 39). Floor vaults have been found in many structures in the Southwest and have also been called foot drums or roofed sipapus; their presence has been interpreted as evidence that a kiva was used as a community-wide ritual structure (see Wilshusen 1989*2:105).
There are also significant differences between the great kiva complex and the D-shaped block at Sand Canyon Pueblo. Unlike the bi-wall rooms in the D-shaped block, the peripheral rooms around the great kiva do not appear to have been planned when the great kiva was constructed. Also unlike the bi-wall rooms, the peripheral rooms are of widely varying sizes and shapes; they were built during a minimum of three different construction episodes; and only one doorway allowed access between the rooms that were exposed during excavation. In addition, a mealing room and an ordinary-size kiva were inelegantly abutted to the outside face of the peripheral rooms. It is thus clear that not all the structures inferred to have been public architecture at Sand Canyon Pueblo were carefully designed and planned.
There is a great deal of variability in the characteristics of peripheral rooms that are associated with other great kivas in the Southwest. A study by McLellan (1969*1:171) suggests that these rooms were more commonly constructed around great kivas during the Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods than around great kivas built earlier. Among peripheral rooms there are substantial variations in (1) their size, shape, and construction method, (2) their horizontal and vertical locations relative to their associated great kivas, and (3) the presence and locations of doorways. However, other characteristics of these rooms are commonfew contain hearths or firepits, they do not appear to have been habitation rooms, and they generally contain little evidence of how they were used (Martin 1936*1:5153; McLellan 1969*1; Morris 1921*1:124; Vivian and Reiter 1965*1:95). The peripheral rooms at Sand Canyon Pueblo appear to have been less planned and less integral to the use of the associated great kiva than do the peripheral rooms at Aztec (Morris 1921*1), which form a uniform, continuous ring around the great kiva. On the other hand, the peripheral rooms at Sand Canyon Pueblo appear to have been more formal and integral to the use of the great kiva than the peripheral rooms at Lowry (Martin 1936*1) and at MV1067 on Mesa Verde (McLellan 1969*1), most of which were neither contiguous with one another nor even attached to the associated great kiva.
The differences between the great kiva complex and the D-shaped block at Sand Canyon Pueblo probably indicate that the kivas, as well as the rooms, in the two complexes were used differently. In addition, sometime before the occupation of the village ended, the uses of the two kivas in the D-shaped block appear to have changed and might have become more residential. The original use of the great kiva might have changed if that structure was originally roofed and then continued to be used after the roof was removed. The roof might have been removed so that a larger number of people could participate in or observe the events that occurred there. Shallow, "open, oversize kivas" built during the thirteenth century have been reported from the Zuni area; these structures apparently were never roofed and have been inferred to have been used for public (as opposed to secret) ceremonies (Kintigh et al. 1996*1).
Some researchers have theorized that Block 300 at Sand Canyon Pueblo was a community-level storage facility (Bradley 1992*2, 1993*1:38; Lipe 1992*2:125, 2002*1:225; Lipe and Varien 1999*1:335336; Ortman and Bradley 2002*1:65). Before Crow Canyon's excavations, this block appeared to have contained only one kiva, which was located in the northeast portion of the block (Database Map 4007). Thus, the block appeared, from the indications on the modern ground surface, to have a higher ratio of rooms to kivas than did other blocks in the village. For this reason, this block was called a "room-dominated" block, which was defined by Bradley (1992*2:8081) as a block with more than 20 rooms per kiva.
The data generated as a result of Crow Canyon's excavations, however, do not necessarily support this theory. First, a second kivaKiva 306was discovered in the area of the block that was intensively excavated. This structure was recognized as a kiva only after it was exposed, so it is possible that additional kivas are present in this block but are not recognizable from indications on the modern ground surface. In any case, the presence of at least two kivas in this block that contains an estimated 30 rooms brings the room-to-kiva ratio within Bradley's (1992*2:8081) defined range of a "standard" block (five to 16 rooms per kiva) rather than a room-dominated block. Second, architectural evidence in the exposed portion of the block indicates that, like other blocks that were tested and interpreted as residential, this block appears to have grown by accretion, rather than having been planned and constructed as a unit (which might be expected if this were a public building). Third, the rooms excavated were not all storage rooms, and it is not possible to accurately characterize the use of the unexcavated rooms from observations on the modern ground surface; that is, there might be mealing rooms and living rooms present in this block as well as storage rooms. Fourth, the sample of discarded debris (Nonstructure 314) that appears to have been generated by activities in this blockeven before Kiva 306 was constructedresembles domestic trash; one would expect refuse from a complex that had specialized use to be significantly different from residential refuse. Thus, although it is possible that Block 300 contains an unusually high room-to-kiva ratio and that it was a community-level storage facility, the available data preclude an assessment of function (see also Goodwill-Cohen 2001*1).
The plaza at Sand Canyon Pueblo was one of the few large, surprisingly level areas of bedrock within the site-enclosing wall. It is not known whether the bedrock had been exposed naturally or was cleared of sediment intentionally when the village was constructed. In either case, it is likely that this area was deliberately delineated as public space early in the occupation of the village.
Although the original existence of numerous second-story structures has been proposed for this site (Bradley 1992*2; Lipe and Varien 1999*1:335), evidence of second-story construction that meets the criteria outlined in paragraph 13 is documented for only six pairs of structures (Tower 1019/1008, and Rooms 1217/1205, 1525/1505, 1526/1507, 1527/1519, and 1523/1524). Each of these buildings shows evidence of a second story in the form of walls continuing above roof-beam sockets or a roof-support "ledge." However, the use of the term "two-story" to describe these buildings is misleading in some cases because at least four of the lower-story structures (Structure 1008 and Rooms 1507, 1519, and 1524) were substantially shorter than a full story in height and would not have been tall enough to allow an adult to stand upright. The height of the ceiling in Structure 1008 ranged from 1.20 to 1.54 cm above the floor, the roof of Room 1519 was 1.35 m above the floor, and the roofs of Rooms 1507 and 1524 were less than 1 m above their respective structure floors. The heights of the roof-beam sockets above the floor of Room 1205 were not recorded. It is inferred that these low-ceilinged rooms were probably used for storage. It is worthy of note that other excavated structures, such as most kiva corner rooms, were also less than one story in height; many kiva corner rooms were actually crawl-space size, and therefore they, too, are assumed to have been used for storage.
Kiva Subfloor Ventilation Systems
Some kivas at Sand Canyon Pueblo contained a subfloor ventilation system in addition to a floor-level ventilation system; kivas at no other sites thus far investigated by Crow Canyon archaeologists in the Sand Canyon locality contain subfloor ventilators. Of the 20 kivas in which ventilation systems were observable during excavations at Sand Canyon Pueblo, 15 contained floor-level ventilators only. The other five kivas (Kivas 400, 1012, 1206, 1501, and 1502), or 25 percent of the kivas investigated at the site, contained subfloor ventilation systems in addition to floor-level systems (Table 4); no structure at this site contained a subfloor system exclusively. One study (Smith 1998*1:76) indicates that subfloor ventilators have been found in 7 percent of the kivas that were constructed between A.D. 1241 and 1275 in the northern San Juan region, a rate that appears to have been relatively constant during the entire Pueblo III period. The incidence of this type of ventilation system at Sand Canyon Pueblo is therefore substantially higher than the regional average for the time period.
Subfloor ventilation systems are relatively common at Chacoan sites, and it is not unusual to find both a subfloor ventilator and a floor-level system in one kiva at such sites. Subfloor ventilators have been found at small Chacoan sites dating from as early as the late A.D. 900s and as late as the mid-1100s (Truell 1986*1:194). They are also common at larger Chacoan sites such as Chetro Ketl (Hewett 1936*1:68), which dates from about A.D. 1000 to 1117 (Robinson and Cameron 1991*1:16), and Pueblo del Arroyo (Judd 1959*1:59), which dates from A.D. 1029 to 1109 (Robinson and Cameron 1991*1:16).
In the Mesa Verde region, subfloor ventilators were constructed as early as A.D. 9001000 (Hayes and Lancaster 1975*1:7778) and at least as late as the midA.D. 1200s (Cattanach 1980*1:412). Although not abundant across the region in general, they are found in numerous kivas on Mesa Verdeat Long House (Cattanach 1980*1), Badger House (Hayes and Lancaster 1975*1:77), and Big Juniper House (Swannack 1969*1:52), for example. As at Sand Canyon Pueblo, many of the subfloor systems at Mesa Verde had been filled and only floor-level systems were in use by the time the kivas were abandoned. Swannack (1969*1:54) even claims that remodeling of subfloor vents to above-floor vents is typical of Pueblo III kivas. In any case, with regard to ventilator style, the observed kivas at Sand Canyon Pueblo are more similar to kivas on Mesa Verde than are other investigated kivas in the Sand Canyon locality.
Number of Pilasters
Most kivas constructed during the thirteenth century in the Mesa Verde region were constructed with six pilasters (Smith 1998*1). Of the 10 kivas excavated or tested at Sand Canyon Pueblo for which the number of pilasters could be determined (Kivas 102, 108, 208, 501, 808, 1004, 1206, 1501, 1502, and 1601), only one, Kiva 108, contained four pilasters; the remainder contained the typical six. Kiva 108 appears to have been constructed in the early A.D. 1270s. Swannack (1969*1:54) states that the four-pilaster configuration was an earlier design than the six-pilaster configuration, and Lipe and Varien (1999*2) concur, maintaining that most four-pilaster kivas in the region were constructed during the Pueblo II period. Nevertheless, according to a study by Smith (1998*1:76), 9 percent of the kivas constructed in the northern San Juan region as late as A.D. 12411275 contained three or four pilasters. Although the sample for Sand Canyon Pueblo is admittedly small, biased, and incomplete, these data nonetheless corroborate Smith's findings; that is, one out of 10 kivas (10 percent) observed at this site contain four pilasters.
Sometime after A.D. 1277, the occupation of Sand Canyon Pueblo ended. Although a few structures observed during Crow Canyon's excavations at this site contain evidence of having been abandoned before this, it appears that most buildings were abandoned at or near the end of village occupation. The strongest indicator of the latter is that few structures contain secondary refuse. The presence of de facto refuse in many structures, as well as evidencein abandonment contextsof one or more violent events, also supports this inference.
Healed depression fractures on at least three, and possibly as many as four, skulls found at the site are evidence that some villagers had been the victims of violence even before the final violent event or events that appear to have resulted in the demise of the village. Skull trauma among ancestral Pueblo peoples has been inferred to be, for the most part, the result of violent interactions (Kuckelman et al. 2002*2:500501). It is not possible to determine the severity of the violent events represented by the healed trauma on the skulls at Sand Canyon Pueblo, nor is it known how frequently such events might have occurred during the 30- to 40-year occupation of the village. It is not even certain that all the injuries were sustained at this particular village.
Regardless of whatever violent incidents might have occurred earlier in the history of Sand Canyon Pueblo, osteological, taphonomic, and stratigraphic evidence suggests that there was a final major event (or perhaps multiple smaller events in succession) in which a number of people were killed (see Bradley 1998*1, 2002*1; Kuckelman et al. 2002*2). Unhealed trauma constituting direct evidence of violent death was documented on the skeletal remains of eight individuals found in abandonment contexts at the site (Kuckelman et al. 2002*2:492494). The articulated or clustered remains of at least 13 additional individuals were found carelessly deposited in abandonment contexts; although these remains show no osteological evidence of violent death, the disposition of the remains and the stratigraphic contexts in which they were found suggest that these deaths, too, may have been related to the violent event or events that ended the occupation of the village. Similarly, scattered human bones in abandonment contexts in six different architectural blocks represent a minimum of 10 additional people who may have died at the end of village occupation. Several of the kivas in which bodies had been carelessly deposited on the floors (documented in at least four to six architectural blocks) appear to have been abandoned before the bodies were deposited. There is evidence in some kivas of brief reuse and additional activity after the kivas were abandoned and, in some instances, after the violent event(s). An articulated skeleton in collapsed roofing material in Kiva 501 was burned, but it is not clear whether the death of this individual was related to the violence. In sum, although there is direct osteological evidence of violent death for only eight individuals, it is possible that the human skeletal remains documented during Crow Canyon's excavations represent at least 31 people who died in one or more violent events that ended the occupation of the village.
After the violent event or events, the roofs of many kivas were burned, and the burned debris collapsed onto the human remains. It is not known who burned the roofs or for what reason, but the actions could have been ritual in nature (Kuckelman 2003*1). In any case, the burning of the roofs appears to have been the final activity in the village, and any surviving Sand Canyon Pueblo residents probably migrated soon after. Because these events occurred after A.D. 1277, near the time of the final depopulation of the Mesa Verde region as a whole, it is likely that they were related to that broader, regional phenomenon.
The large village of Sand Canyon Pueblo was constructed and occupied in the middle and late A.D. 1200s and was home to hundreds of villagers during that time. Population estimates for the village range from 225 to 500 people (Lipe and Varien 1999*1:334; Varien 1999*1:149). Building construction probably began in the late A.D. 1240s or early 1250s and appears to have been most intensive during the 1260s. A massive wall that appears to have been built in at least two separate episodes enclosed much of the village (paragraphs 169171; but see Bradley 1992*2:95, 1993*1:39; Morgan 1994*1:143; Ortman and Bradley 2002*1:49). Many buildings were abutted to the interior face of this wall, a few were abutted to the exterior face, and many more were located within its arc. It is probable that some structures that did not contact the wall predated its construction. The building of a substantial amount of public architecture in this village, including a site-enclosing wall, a great kiva, a D-shaped bi-wall building, and a plaza, and the fact that these constructions appear to have involved planning and large-scale cooperation, is a reflection of the role and function of the village as an important community center.
The great quantity of architectural and artifactual data generated by Crow Canyon's work at Sand Canyon Pueblo has already been used to support many inferences about the organization and use of structures, suites, and architectural blocks at the site. For example, on the basis of such lines of evidence as room-to-kiva ratios and architectural-block composition and layout (mostly estimated from indications on the modern ground surface), researchers have proposed numerous theories with regard to different uses of particular architectural blocks and the significance of the site layout as a whole (e.g., Bradley 1992*2, 1993*1, 1996*1; Goodwill-Cohen 2001*1; Lipe 1992*2, 1992*3, 2002*1; Lipe and Ortman 2000*1; Lipe and Varien 1999*1; Ortman and Bradley 2002*1; Potter 2000*1; Varien 1999*1:149; Varien and Wilshusen 2002*2). Some of the information and interpretations contained in these publications, especially the earliest works, were based on preliminary and incomplete data, so some of the conclusions drawn may not reflect the current state of knowledge, which is based on more complete and up-to-date information.
Occupation of the village ended sometime after A.D. 1277, and probably about A.D. 1280. This appears to coincide with regional depopulation, as evidenced by the tree-ring record (Robinson and Cameron 1991*1). The fairly short occupation span of Sand Canyon Pueblo suggested by the tree-ring dates is corroborated by two facts: first, the fills of very few of the excavated structures contained trash, and, second, there is little evidence of structure remodeling. The occupation of the village appears to have ended as a result of one or more violent events that took the lives of numerous residents (see also Bradley 1998*1, 2002*1; Kuckelman et al. 2002*2).
The villagers had employed multiple strategies to defend themselves against aggressionfor example, population aggregation, defensible location, the construction of a site-enclosing wall with few openings, and the construction of towers attached to the outside face of the enclosing wall. These measures suggest that there was a threat of violence from outside the village. There is no evidence, however, to suggest that the perpetrators of the violence were not Puebloan (Bradley 2002*1; Kuckelman 2002*1; Kuckelman et al. 2002*2). Therefore, the conclusion drawn here is that the village was probably attacked by Pueblo people from one or more other villages (see Kuckelman 2002*1:245246). Competition for dwindling resources might have been at least one catalyst for the violence documented at various sites in the Mesa Verde region (Kuckelman 2002*1:251; Kuckelman et al. 2000*1:160, 2002*2:508; LeBlanc 1999*1:276; Lipe 1995*1; Lipe and Varien 1999*1:339340)(5), and there is abundant evidence that conflict and violence occurred in the late A.D. 1200s elsewhere in the northern Southwest (Adams 1980*3:293; Haas and Creamer 1996*1; Kenzle 1997*1:207; Kuckelman 2001*1, 2002*1; Lambert 1999*1:141; LeBlanc 1999*1; Linton 1944*1; Lipe 1970*1, 1995*1; Mackey and Green 1979*1; Morley 1908*1:607; Schulman 1950*1:296; Turner and Turner 1999*1; Wilcox and Haas 1994*1). The violent events at Sand Canyon Pueblo thus appear to have been part of a widespread pattern of hostilities and strife that occurred during the late A.D. 1200s, just before the Pueblo migrations from the region.
1Human Remains Occurrence (HRO) numbers were assigned to human skeletons that were articulated, mostly articulated, or partly articulated, as well as to remains that were disarticulated but clustered. Scattered human bones were recorded but were not given HRO numbers. All human remains collected from Sand Canyon Pueblo during Crow Canyon's excavations are currently at the Anasazi Heritage Center, Dolores, Colorado.
2In this context, "taphonomy" refers to the study of the processes that affect the human body from the moment of death until the osteologist studies the remains; these processes affect not only the condition of individual skeletal elements, but their representation in the archaeological record as well (White 1991*1:357).
3Use of the word "abandonment" to describe archaeological contexts and/or events has stimulated debate between archaeologists and some members of the Native American community. Many Pueblo Indians, in particular, believe that ancient sites in the Mesa Verde region and elsewhere continue to be inhabited by the spirits of their ancestors. These locations are therefore not considered to have been abandoned in the sense of "permanently deserted," and they continue to serve as important cultural markers on the modern landscape. In this chapter, we use the words "abandon" and "abandonment" only to describe the cessation of use of a particular portion of the villagefor example, individual structures or kiva suitesrather than in reference to the village as a whole.
4The possible public structures at this site have been described and interpreted in numerous publications, including Bradley (1992*2, 1993*1:38), Churchill et al. (1998*1), Goodwill-Cohen (2001*1), Lipe (1992*2, 2002*1), Lipe and Ortman (2000*1); Lipe and Varien (1999*1:335336), and Ortman and Bradley (2002*1).